10-K
Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period                    to                     
Commission File No. 000-50028
WYNN RESORTS, LIMITED
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
NEVADA
 
46-0484987
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
3131 Las Vegas Boulevard South—Las Vegas, Nevada 89109
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(702) 770-7555
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value
 
Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
ý
 
Accelerated filer
 
¨
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
¨
 
Smaller reporting company
 
¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  ý
The aggregate market value of the registrant's voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates based on the closing price as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on June 30, 2015 was approximately $7.99 billion.
As of February 12, 2016, 101,749,906 shares of the registrant's Common Stock, $0.01 par value, were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement for its 2016 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this report are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.



Table of Contents

WYNN RESORTS, LIMITED AND SUBSIDIARIES
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.


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PART I
Item 1. Business

Overview

Wynn Resorts, Limited, ("Wynn Resorts," or together with its subsidiaries, "we" or the "Company"), led by Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Stephen A. Wynn, is a leading developer, owner and operator of destination casino resorts (integrated resorts) that integrate hotel accommodations and a wide range of amenities, including fine dining outlets, premium retail offerings, distinctive entertainment theaters and large meeting complexes.

Wynn Resorts currently owns 72% of Wynn Macau, Limited, which operates an integrated resort in the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ("Macau"). Wynn Resorts also owns 100% of and operates an integrated resort in Las Vegas, Nevada.

We are currently constructing Wynn Palace, an integrated resort in the Cotai area of Macau, which we expect to open in the first half of 2016; however, potential construction delays could push the opening date into the second half of 2016. We have begun site preparation and pre-construction activities for the development and construction of an integrated resort in Everett, Massachusetts, adjacent to Boston.

We present the operating results of our two existing integrated resorts in the following two segments: Macau Operations and Las Vegas Operations. For more information on our segments, see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 18 "Segment Information."

Wynn Resorts, a Nevada corporation, was formed in 2002. Wynn Resorts files annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments of such reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). Any document Wynn Resorts files may be inspected, without charge, at the SEC's public reference room at 100 F Street, N.E. Washington, D.C. 20549 or at the SEC's internet site address at http://www.sec.gov. Information related to the operation of the SEC's public reference room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, through our own internet address at www.wynnresorts.com, Wynn Resorts provides a hyperlink to a third-party SEC filing website which posts these filings as soon as reasonably practicable, where they can be reviewed without charge. The information found on our website is not a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other report we file or furnish to the SEC.

Our Resorts

Macau Operations

We opened Wynn Macau on September 6, 2006 and opened Encore at Wynn Macau, an expansion of Wynn Macau, on April 21, 2010. We refer to the integrated Wynn Macau and Encore at Wynn Macau resort as "Wynn Macau | Encore" or as our "Macau Operations." We operate Wynn Macau | Encore under a 20-year casino concession agreement granted by the Macau government in June 2002. See "Regulation and Licensing—Macau" for details on the casino concession agreement. We lease from the Macau government an approximately 16-acre parcel of land in downtown Macau's inner harbor where Wynn Macau | Encore is located. See "Item 2—Properties" for details on the land concession agreement.

Wynn Macau | Encore features the following as of February 12, 2016:

Approximately 284,000 square feet of casino space offering 24-hour gaming with 458 table games and 708 slot machines, private gaming salons, sky casinos and a poker pit;
Two luxury hotel towers with a total of 1,008 guest rooms and suites;
Casual and fine dining in eight restaurants;
Approximately 57,000 square feet of high-end, brand-name retail shopping, including stores and boutiques by Bvlgari, Cartier, Chanel, Dior, Dunhill, Ermenegildo Zegna, Ferrari, Giorgio Armani, Graff, Gucci, Hermes, Hugo Boss, Jaegar-LeCoultre, Loro Piana, Louis Vuitton, Miu Miu, Piaget, Prada, Richard Mille, Roger Dubuis, Rolex, Tiffany, Vacheron Constantin, Van Cleef & Arpels, Versace, Vertu, and others;
Approximately 31,000 square feet of space for lounges and meeting facilities;
Recreation and leisure facilities, including two health clubs, spas, a salon and a pool; and
A rotunda show featuring a Chinese zodiac-inspired ceiling along with gold "prosperity tree" and "dragon of fortune" attractions.

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In response to our evaluation of our Macau Operations and our commitment to creating a unique customer experience, we have made and expect to continue to make enhancements and refinements to this resort. In February 2015, we completed the renovation of approximately 27,000 square feet of our casino space at Wynn Macau for new VIP gaming rooms.

Las Vegas Operations

We opened Wynn Las Vegas on April 28, 2005 and opened Encore at Wynn Las Vegas, an expansion of Wynn Las Vegas, on December 22, 2008. We refer to the integrated Wynn Las Vegas and Encore at Wynn Las Vegas resort as "Wynn Las Vegas | Encore" or as our "Las Vegas Operations." Wynn Las Vegas | Encore is located at the intersection of the Las Vegas Strip and Sands Avenue, and occupies approximately 215 acres of land fronting the Las Vegas Strip. In addition, we own approximately 18 acres across Sands Avenue, a portion of which is utilized for employee parking and an office building, and approximately five acres adjacent to the golf course on which an office building is located.

Wynn Las Vegas | Encore features the following as of February 12, 2016:

Approximately 186,000 square feet of casino space, offering 24-hour gaming with 232 table games and 1,866 slot machines, private gaming salons, a sky casino, a poker room, and a race and sports book;
Two luxury hotel towers with a total of 4,748 guest rooms, suites and villas;
34 food and beverage outlets featuring signature chefs;
Approximately 99,000 square feet of high-end, brand-name retail shopping, including stores and boutiques by Alexander McQueen, Brioni, Cartier, Chanel, Chloé, Chopard, Dior, Givenchy, Graff, Hermes, IWC Schaffhausen, Jaeger-LeCoultre, Loro Piana, Louis Vuitton, Moncler, Nicholas Kirkwood, Piaget, Prada, Rolex, Vertu and others;
Approximately 290,000 square feet of meeting and convention space;
Three nightclubs and a beach club;
A specially designed theater presenting "Le Rêve-The Dream," a water-based theatrical production and a theater presenting "Steve Wynn's ShowStoppers," a Broadway-style entertainment production; and
Recreation and leisure facilities, including an 18-hole golf course, swimming pools, private cabanas, two full service spas and salons, and a wedding chapel.

In response to our evaluation of our Las Vegas Operations and our commitment to creating a unique customer experience, we have made and expect to continue to make enhancements and refinements to this resort. In October 2015, we closed the Ferrari and Maserati automobile dealership inside Wynn Las Vegas. We have obtained the relevant approvals to transform the dealership and adjacent space into additional retail space. In November 2015, we completed the remodel of all guest rooms in our Encore hotel tower, completed the remodel of one of our restaurants and began the re-branding of one of our night clubs, which is scheduled for completion in April 2016.  In December 2015, we opened a 5,000 square-foot luxury lounge for gaming and entertainment in Encore.     

Construction and Development Opportunities

We are currently constructing Wynn Palace, an integrated resort featuring a 1,700 room hotel, a performance lake, and a wide range of amenities, including meeting, retail, food and beverage, and gaming space, in the Cotai area of Macau. The total project budget, including construction costs, capitalized interest, pre-opening expenses, land costs and financing fees, is $4.1 billion. As of December 31, 2015, we have invested $3.5 billion in the project.

In September 2011, Palo Real Estate Company Limited ("Palo") and Wynn Resorts (Macau), S.A. ("Wynn Macau SA"), each an indirect subsidiary of Wynn Macau, Limited, formally accepted the terms and conditions of a land concession contract from the Macau government for approximately 51 acres of land in the Cotai area of Macau. On May 2, 2012, the land concession contract was gazetted by the government of Macau evidencing the final step in the granting of the land concession.

The initial term of the Cotai land concession contract is 25 years from May 2, 2012, and it may be renewed with government approval for successive periods. The total land premium payable, including interest as required by the land concession contract, is $193.4 million. An initial payment of $62.5 million was paid in December 2011, with eight additional semi-annual payments of approximately $16.4 million each (including interest at 5%), which began in November 2012. As of December 31, 2015, the remaining $16.0 million obligation was recorded as a current liability. We will be required to make

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annual lease payments of $0.8 million during the resort construction period and annual lease payments of approximately $1.1 million once the development is completed.

On July 29, 2013, Wynn Macau SA and Palo executed a guaranteed maximum price construction ("GMP") contract with Leighton Contractors (Asia) Limited, acting as the general contractor. The general contractor is obligated to substantially complete the project in the first half of 2016 for a guaranteed maximum price of HK$20.6 billion (approximately $2.7 billion).  On November 18, 2015, we were notified by the general contractor that the Wynn Palace project in the Cotai area of Macau will not be ready to open by the projected early completion date of March 25, 2016. The general contractor has expressed its commitment to the completion of the project by the required date but has advised us that they dispute our assessment of liquidated damages. We continue to expect to open the property in the first half of 2016; however, potential construction delays could push the opening date into the second half of 2016. Both the contract time and guaranteed maximum price are subject to further adjustment under certain specified conditions. The performance of the general contractor is backed by a full completion guarantee given by CIMIC Group Limited (formerly Leighton Holdings Limited), the parent company of the general contractor, as well as a performance bond for 5% of the guaranteed maximum price.

In November 2014, we were awarded a gaming license to develop and construct an integrated resort in Everett, Massachusetts, adjacent to Boston. This was the only license granted in the greater Boston region. The resort will be located on a 33-acre site along the Mystic River. The resort will contain a hotel, a waterfront boardwalk, meeting space, a casino, a spa, retail offerings and food and beverage outlets. We have begun site remediation, site preparation and pre-construction activities.

We continually seek out new opportunities for additional gaming or related businesses, in the United States, and worldwide.

Our Strategy

We believe that Wynn Resorts is the world's preeminent designer, developer, and operator of integrated resorts. The Company's integrated resort business model, pioneered by Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Stephen A. Wynn, integrates luxury hotel rooms, high-end retail, an array of dining and entertainment options, meeting space, and gaming, all supported by superior levels of customer service. Given his extensive design and operational experience across numerous gaming jurisdictions, we believe that Mr. Wynn's involvement with our resorts provides a distinct advantage over other gaming enterprises.

Wynn Resorts and its management team have a demonstrated track record in developing and operating successful integrated resort projects around the world. The senior executive team has an average of over 25 years of experience in the hotel and gaming industries. In addition, we have a 125-person design, development and construction subsidiary, the senior management of which has significant experience across all major construction disciplines.

We aim to build appropriately scaled integrated resorts that attract a wide range of customer segments (including premium international customers), generate strong financial results, and complement their surrounding market areas. We design and continually refresh our integrated resorts to create unique customer experiences across a wide range of gaming and non-gaming amenities. Our business is dependent upon repeat visitation from our guests; we believe superior customer experience and service is the best marketing strategy to attract and retain our customers. We emphasize human resources and staff training to ensure our employees are prepared to provide the luxury service that our guests expect.

Our integrated resorts are conceptualized, designed, built and operated in major metropolitan markets to service all customers with an emphasis on providing superior levels of premium customer service. In Las Vegas and Macau, we have been successful in attracting not only a wide range of domestic guests, but also extending our customer market areas into international markets. We leverage our international marketing team across branch offices (Hong Kong SAR, Singapore, Japan, Taiwan and Vancouver, Canada) located in five countries to attract international customers.

Reflecting our commitment to customer service globally, the Company has received the following recognition:

Collectively, Wynn Resorts earned more Five-Star awards than any other independent hotel company in the world in the official 2016 Forbes Travel Guide Star Rating list.
Wynn Macau | Encore continues to be the only resort in the world with seven Five-Star awards.
Wynn Resorts owns two of the largest Forbes Five-Star hotels in the United States: Wynn Tower Suites (Las Vegas) and Encore Tower Suites (Las Vegas).

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Wynn Resorts was once again honored as the highest ranking casino resort on FORTUNE Magazine's 2016 World's Most Admired Companies list in the hotel, casino and resort category.

We plan to continue to seek out new opportunities to develop and operate integrated resorts, including related businesses, around the world. Overall, we believe Wynn Resorts has a demonstrated track record of developing integrated resorts that stimulate city- and region-wide economic activity, which we believe includes:

attracting a wide range of customers to the region, including high-net-worth international tourists;
driving international tourism for the region;
lifting average hotel room rates in the region;
extending the average length of stay per visitor;
complementing existing convention and meeting business with 5-star accommodations and appropriately scaled meeting amenities;
elevating service levels with the execution of five-star customer service; and
helping stimulate city-wide investment and employment.

Market and Competition

The casino resort industry is highly competitive. Both our Macau Operations and our Las Vegas Operations compete with other high-quality casino resorts. Resorts located on or near our properties compete on the basis of the range of amenities, level of service, price, location, entertainment, themes and size, among other factors. We seek to differentiate our Macau and Las Vegas integrated resorts from other major resorts by delivering superior design and customer service.

Macau

Macau is governed as a special administrative region of China and is located approximately 37 miles southwest of, and approximately one hour away via ferry from, Hong Kong. Macau, which has been a casino destination for more than 50 years, consists principally of a peninsula on mainland China, with two neighboring islands, Taipa and Coloane, between which the Cotai area is located. In 2002, the government of Macau ended a 40-year monopoly on the conduct of gaming operations by conducting a competitive process that resulted in the issuance of gaming concessions to three concessionaires (including Wynn Macau SA), who in turn were permitted, subject to the approval of the government of Macau, to each grant one subconcession, resulting in a total of six gaming concessionaires and subconcessionaires. In addition to Wynn Macau SA, each of Sociedade de Jogos de Macau ("SJM") and Galaxy Entertainment Group Limited are primary concessionaires with Sands China Ltd., Melco Crown and MGM China Holdings Limited operating under subconcessions. There is no limit to the number of casinos each concessionaire or subconcessionaire is permitted to operate, but each facility is subject to government approval. Currently, there are 36 operating casinos in Macau.

We believe that Macau is located in one of the world's largest concentrations of potential gaming customers. According to Macau Statistical Information, casinos in Macau, the largest gaming market in the world, generated approximately $29 billion in gaming revenue in 2015. Since the introduction of new casinos starting in 2004, the Macau market has experienced a significant increase in annual gaming revenue from the $2.9 billion generated in 2002; however, the Macau market has recently experienced significant year-over-year declines, including a 34.3% decline in 2015.

Macau's gaming market is primarily dependent on tourists. Tourist arrivals in 2015 were 30.7 million, compared to 31.5 million in 2014. The Macau market has also experienced tremendous growth in capacity in the last several years. As of December 31, 2015, there were 32,200 hotel rooms, 5,957 table games and 14,578 slot machines in Macau, compared to 12,978 hotel rooms, 2,762 table games and 6,546 slot machines as of December 31, 2006.

Gaming customers traveling to Macau have typically come from nearby destinations in Asia, including Hong Kong, mainland China, Taiwan, South Korea and Malaysia. According to the Macau Statistics and Census Service Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, approximately 90% of the tourists who visited Macau in 2015 came from Hong Kong, mainland China and Taiwan. Travel to Macau by citizens of mainland China requires a visa. Chinese government officials have, on occasion, exercised their authority to adjust the visa policy and may do so in the future.

Wynn Macau faces competition primarily from the 35 other casinos located throughout Macau plus casinos located throughout the world, including Singapore, Australia, the Philippines, Las Vegas and cruise ships in Asia that offer gaming.

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Las Vegas

Las Vegas is the largest gaming market in the United States.  Although Las Vegas Strip gaming revenues remained relatively flat at $6.3 billion for the year ended December 31, 2015, the economic environment in the gaming and hotel markets in Las Vegas continued to improve with increased visitation and hotel room demand.  During 2015, the average daily room rate increased 2.7% and visitation increased 2.9% to 42.3 million visitors compared to 2014. In addition, Las Vegas Strip resorts experienced 2015 year-over-year increases of 0.6% and 3.3% in occupancy and revenue per available room, respectively.

Our Las Vegas Operations are located on the Las Vegas Strip and compete with other high-quality resorts and hotel casinos in Las Vegas. Our Las Vegas Operations also compete, to some extent, with other casino resorts throughout the United States and elsewhere in the world.

Geographic Data

Geographic data are reported in Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 18 "Segment Information." Additional financial data about our geographic operations is provided in Item 7—"Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."

Regulation and Licensing

Macau

General. As a casino concessionaire, Wynn Macau SA, an indirect 72% owned subsidiary of the Company, is subject to the regulatory control of the government of Macau. The government has adopted Laws and Administrative Regulations governing the operation of casinos in Macau. Only concessionaires or subconcessionaires are permitted to operate casinos. Subconcessions may be awarded subject to the approval of the Macau government and each concessionaire has issued one subconcession. Each concessionaire was required to enter into a concession agreement with the Macau government which, together with the Law and Administrative Regulations, form the framework for the regulation of the activities of the concessionaire.

Under the Law and Administrative Regulations, concessionaires are subject to suitability requirements relating to background, associations and reputation, as are stockholders of 5% or more of a concessionaire's equity securities, officers, directors and key employees. The same requirements apply to any entity engaged by a concessionaire to manage casino operations. Concessionaires are required to satisfy minimum capitalization requirements, demonstrate and maintain adequate financial capacity to operate the concession and submit to continuous monitoring of their casino operations by the Macau government. Concessionaires also are subject to periodic financial reporting requirements and reporting obligations with respect to, among other things, certain contracts, financing activities and transactions with directors, financiers and key employees. Transfers or the encumbering of interests in concessionaires must be reported to the Macau government and are ineffective without government approval.

Each concessionaire is required to engage an executive director who must be a permanent resident of Macau and the holder of at least 10% of the capital stock of the concessionaire. The appointment of the executive director and of any successor is ineffective without the approval of the Macau government. All contracts placing the management of a concessionaire's casino operations with a third party also are ineffective without the approval of the Macau government.

Concessionaires are subject to a special gaming tax of 35% of gross gaming revenue, and must also make an annual contribution of up to 4% of gross gaming revenue for the promotion of public interests, social security, infrastructure and tourism. Concessionaires are obligated to withhold applicable taxes, according to the rate in effect as set by the government, from any commissions paid to gaming promoters. The withholding rate may be adjusted from time to time.

Concession Agreement. The concession agreement between Wynn Macau SA and the Macau government required Wynn Macau SA to construct and operate one or more casino gaming properties in Macau, including, at a minimum, one full-service casino resort by the end of December 2006, and to invest not less than a total of 4 billion Macau patacas (approximately $500.0 million) in Macau-related projects by June 2009. These obligations were satisfied upon the opening of Wynn Macau in 2006.

Wynn Macau SA was also obligated to obtain, and did obtain, a 700.0 million Macau pataca (approximately $87.0 million) bank guarantee from Banco National Ultramarino, S.A. ("BNU") that was effective until March 31, 2007. The amount of this guarantee was reduced to 300 million Macau patacas (approximately $37.0 million) for the period from April 1,

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2007 until 180 days after the end of the term of the concession agreement. This guarantee, which is for the benefit of the Macau government, assures Wynn Macau SA's performance under the casino concession agreement, including the payment of premiums, fines and indemnity for any material failure to perform the concession agreement. Wynn Macau SA is obligated, upon demand by BNU, to promptly repay any claim made on the guarantee by the Macau government. BNU is currently paid an annual fee by Wynn Macau SA for the guarantee of approximately 2.3 million patacas (approximately $0.3 million).

The government of Macau may redeem the concession beginning on June 24, 2017, and in such event Wynn Macau SA will be entitled to fair compensation or indemnity. The amount of such compensation or indemnity will be determined based on the amount of gaming and non-gaming revenue generated during the tax year prior to the redemption multiplied by the remaining years before expiration of the concession.

The government of Macau may unilaterally rescind the concession if Wynn Macau SA fails to fulfill its fundamental obligations under the concession agreement. The concession agreement expressly provides that the government of Macau may unilaterally rescind the concession agreement if Wynn Macau SA:

conducts unauthorized games or activities that are excluded from its corporate purpose;
abandons or suspends gaming operations in Macau for more than seven consecutive days (or more than 14 days in a civil year) without justification;
defaults in payment of taxes, premiums, contributions or other required amounts;
does not comply with government inspections or supervision;
systematically fails to observe its obligations under the concession system;
fails to maintain bank guarantees or bonds satisfactory to the government;
is the subject of bankruptcy proceedings or becomes insolvent;
engages in serious fraudulent activity, damaging to the public interest; or
repeatedly and seriously violates applicable gaming laws.

If the government of Macau unilaterally rescinds the concession agreement for one of the reasons stated above, Wynn Macau SA will be required to compensate the government in accordance with applicable law, and the areas defined as casino under Macau law and all of the gaming equipment pertaining to the gaming operations of Wynn Macau SA will be transferred to the government without compensation. In addition, the government of Macau may, in the public interest, unilaterally terminate the concession at any time, in which case Wynn Macau SA would be entitled to reasonable compensation.

The government of Macau may assume temporary custody and control over the operation of a concession in certain circumstances. During any such period, the costs of operations must be borne by the concessionaire. The government of Macau also may redeem a concession starting at an established date after the entering into effect of a concession.

Gaming Promoters. A gaming promoter, also known as a junket representative, is a person or entity who, for the purpose of promoting casino gaming activity, arranges customer transportation and accommodations, and provides credit in their sole discretion, food and beverage services and entertainment in exchange for commissions or other compensation from a concessionaire. Macau law provides that gaming promoters must be licensed by the Macau government in order to do business with and receive compensation from concessionaires. For a license to be obtained, direct and indirect owners of 5% or more of a gaming promoter (regardless of its corporate form or sole proprietor status), its directors and its key employees must be found suitable. Applicants are required to pay the cost of license investigations, and are required to maintain suitability standards during the period of licensure. The term of a gaming promoter's license is one calendar year, and licenses can be renewed for additional periods upon the submission of renewal applications. Natural person junket representative licensees are subject to a suitability verification process every three years and business entity licensees are subject to the same requirement every six years. The Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau ("DICJ") implemented certain instructions in 2009, which have the force of law, relating to commissions paid to, and by, gaming promoters. Such instructions also impose certain financial reporting and audit requirements on gaming promoters.

Under Macau law, licensed gaming promoters must identify outside contractors who assist them in their promotion activities. These contractors are subject to approval of the Macau government. Changes in the management structure of business entity gaming promoters licensees must be reported to the Macau government and any transfer or the encumbering of interests in such licensees is ineffective without prior government approval. To conduct gaming promotion activities licensees must be registered with one or more concessionaires and must have written contracts with such concessionaires, copies of which must be submitted to the Macau government.

Macau law further provides that concessionaires are jointly responsible with their gaming promoters for the gaming activities of such representatives and their directors and contractors in the concessionaire's casinos, and for their compliance

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with applicable laws and regulations. Concessionaires must submit annual lists of their gaming promoters, and must update such lists on a quarterly basis. The Macau government may designate a maximum number of gaming promoters and specify the number of gaming promoters a concessionaire is permitted to engage. Concessionaires are subject to periodic reporting requirements with respect to commissions paid to their gaming promoters' representatives and are required to oversee their activities and report instances of unlawful activity.

In late 2015, the Macau government implemented enhanced accounting and financial procedures and requirements to be followed by gaming promoters. These enhanced procedures require gaming promoters to disclose more detailed financial and accounting information to the DICJ, including the disclosure of certain financial information on a monthly basis. Gaming promoters also must identify and nominate senior financial or accounting representatives to be available to the DICJ for any follow-up matters the Bureau may require.

Nevada

Introduction. The ownership and operation of casino gaming facilities in the State of Nevada are subject to the Nevada Gaming Control Act and the regulations made thereunder, as well as to various local ordinances. Our Las Vegas Operations are subject to the licensing and regulatory control of the Nevada Gaming Commission, the Nevada Gaming Control Board and the Clark County Liquor and Gaming Licensing Board, which we refer to herein collectively as the "Nevada Gaming Authorities."

Policy Concerns of Gaming Laws. The laws, regulations and supervisory procedures of the Nevada Gaming Authorities are based upon declarations of public policy. Such public policy concerns include, among other things:

preventing unsavory or unsuitable persons from being directly or indirectly involved with gaming at any time or in any capacity;
establishing and maintaining responsible accounting practices and procedures;
maintaining effective controls over the financial practices of licensees, including establishing minimum procedures for internal fiscal affairs and safeguarding assets and revenue, providing reliable recordkeeping and requiring the filing of periodic reports with the Nevada Gaming Authorities;
preventing cheating and fraudulent practices; and
providing a source of state and local revenue through taxation and licensing fees.

Changes in applicable laws, regulations and procedures could have significant negative effects on our Las Vegas gaming operations and our financial condition and results of operations.

Owner and Operator Licensing Requirements. Our subsidiary, Wynn Las Vegas, LLC, the owner and operator of our Las Vegas Operations, has been approved by the Nevada Gaming Authorities as a limited liability company licensee, referred to as a company licensee, which includes approval to conduct casino gaming operations, including a race book and sports pool, pari-mutuel wagering and the operation of gaming salons. These gaming licenses are not transferable.

Company Registration Requirements. Wynn Resorts was found suitable by the Nevada Gaming Commission to own the equity interests of Wynn Resorts Holdings, LLC ("Wynn Resorts Holdings"), a wholly owned subsidiary of Wynn Resorts, and to be registered by the Nevada Gaming Commission as a publicly traded corporation, referred to as a registered company, for the purposes of the Nevada Gaming Control Act. Wynn Resorts Holdings was found suitable by the Nevada Gaming Commission to own the equity interests of Wynn America, LLC ("Wynn America") and to be registered by the Nevada Gaming Commission as an intermediary company. Wynn America was found suitable by the Nevada Gaming Commission to own the equity interests of Wynn Las Vegas Holdings, LLC and to be registered by the Nevada Gaming Commission as an intermediary company. Wynn Las Vegas Holdings, LLC was found suitable by the Nevada Gaming Commission to own the equity interests of Wynn Las Vegas, LLC and to be registered by the Nevada Gaming Commission as an intermediary company. In addition to being licensed, Wynn Las Vegas, LLC, as an issuer of debt securities registered with the SEC, also qualified as a registered company. Wynn Las Vegas Capital Corp., a co-issuer of the debt securities, was not required to be registered or licensed, but may be required to be found suitable as a lender or financing source.

Periodically, we are required to submit detailed financial and operating reports to the Nevada Gaming Commission and provide any other information that the Nevada Gaming Commission may require. Substantially all of our material loans, leases, sales of securities and similar financing transactions must be reported to, and/or approved by, the Nevada Gaming Commission.

Individual Licensing Requirements. No person may become a more than 5% stockholder or member of, or receive any percentage of the profits of, an intermediary company or company licensee without first obtaining licenses and approvals from the Nevada Gaming Authorities. The Nevada Gaming Authorities may investigate any individual who has a material

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relationship to or material involvement with us to determine whether the individual is suitable or should be licensed as a business associate of a gaming licensee. Certain of our officers, directors and key employees have been or may be required to file applications with the Nevada Gaming Authorities and are or may be required to be licensed or found suitable by the Nevada Gaming Authorities. All applications required as of the date of this report have been filed. However, the Nevada Gaming Authorities may require additional applications and may also deny an application for licensing for any reason which they deem appropriate. A finding of suitability is comparable to licensing, and both require submission of detailed personal and financial information followed by a thorough investigation. An applicant for licensing or an applicant for a finding of suitability must pay or must cause to be paid all the costs of the investigation. Changes in licensed positions must be reported to the Nevada Gaming Authorities and, in addition to their authority to deny an application for a finding of suitability or licensing, the Nevada Gaming Authorities have the jurisdiction to disapprove a change in a corporate position.

If the Nevada Gaming Authorities were to find an officer, director or key employee unsuitable for licensing or unsuitable to continue having a relationship with us, we would have to sever all relationships with that person. In addition, the Nevada Gaming Commission may require us to terminate the employment of any person who refuses to file appropriate applications. Determinations of suitability or questions pertaining to licensing are not subject to judicial review in Nevada.

Redemption of Securities Owned by an Unsuitable Person. The Company's articles of incorporation provide that, to the extent required by the gaming authority making the determination of unsuitability or to the extent the Board of Directors determines, in its sole discretion, that a person is likely to jeopardize the Company's or any affiliate's application for, receipt of, approval for, right to the use of, or entitlement to, any gaming license, shares of Wynn Resorts' capital stock that are owned or controlled by such person or its affiliates are subject to redemption by Wynn Resorts. The redemption price will be the amount, if any, required by the gaming authority or, if the gaming authority does not determine the price, the sum deemed by the Board of Directors to be the fair value of the securities to be redeemed. If Wynn Resorts determines the redemption price, the redemption price will be capped at the closing price of the shares on the principal national securities exchange on which the shares are listed on the trading day before the redemption notice is given. If the shares are not listed on a national securities exchange, the redemption price will be capped at the closing sale price of the shares as quoted on The NASDAQ Global Select Market or if the closing price is not reported, the mean between the bid and ask prices, as quoted by any other generally recognized reporting system. Wynn Resorts' right of redemption is not exclusive of any other rights that it may have or later acquire under any agreement, its bylaws or otherwise. The redemption price may be paid in cash, by promissory note, or both, as required, and pursuant to the terms established by the applicable Gaming Authority and, if not, as the Board of Directors of Wynn Resorts elects, and as set forth in the Company's articles of incorporation.

Based on the Board of Directors' finding of "unsuitability," on February 18, 2012, Wynn Resorts redeemed and canceled Aruze USA, Inc.'s ("Aruze") 24,549,222 shares of Wynn Resorts' common stock. Pursuant to its articles of incorporation, Wynn Resorts issued the Redemption Price Promissory Note (the "Redemption Note") to Aruze in redemption of the shares. Aruze, Universal Entertainment Corporation and Mr. Kazuo Okada (collectively, the "Okada Parties") have challenged the redemption of Aruze's shares and the Company is currently involved in litigation with those parties as well as related shareholder derivative litigation. See Item 1A—"Risk Factors" and Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies."

Consequences of Violating Gaming Laws. If the Nevada Gaming Commission determines that we have violated the Nevada Gaming Control Act or any of its regulations, it could limit, condition, suspend or revoke our registrations and gaming license. In addition, we and the persons involved could be subject to substantial fines for each separate violation of the Nevada Gaming Control Act, or of the regulations of the Nevada Gaming Commission, at the discretion of the Nevada Gaming Commission. Further, the Nevada Gaming Commission could appoint a supervisor to operate our Las Vegas Operations and, under specified circumstances, earnings generated during the supervisor's appointment (except for the reasonable rental value of the premises) could be forfeited to the State of Nevada. Limitation, conditioning or suspension of any of our gaming licenses and the appointment of a supervisor could, and revocation of any gaming license would, have a significant negative effect on our gaming operations.

Requirements for Voting or Nonvoting Securities Holders. Regardless of the number of shares held, any beneficial owner of Wynn Resorts' voting or nonvoting securities may be required to file an application, be investigated and have that person's suitability as a beneficial owner of voting securities determined if the Nevada Gaming Commission has reason to believe that the ownership would be inconsistent with the declared policies of the State of Nevada. If the beneficial owner of the voting or nonvoting securities of Wynn Resorts who must be found suitable is a corporation, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company or trust, it must submit detailed business and financial information, including a list of its beneficial owners. The applicant must pay all costs of the investigation incurred by the Nevada Gaming Authorities in conducting any investigation.


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The Nevada Gaming Control Act requires any person who acquires more than 5% of the voting securities of a registered company to report the acquisition to the Nevada Gaming Commission. The Nevada Gaming Control Act requires beneficial owners of more than 10% of a registered company's voting securities to apply to the Nevada Gaming Commission for a finding of suitability within 30 days after the Chairman of the Nevada Gaming Control Board mails the written notice requiring such filing. However, an "institutional investor," as defined in the Nevada Gaming Control Act, which beneficially owns more than 10% but not more than 11% of a registered company's voting securities as a result of a stock repurchase by the registered company may not be required to file such an application. Further, an institutional investor which acquires more than 10%, but not more than 25%, of a registered company's voting securities may apply to the Nevada Gaming Commission for a waiver of a finding of suitability if the institutional investor holds the voting securities for investment purposes only. An institutional investor that has obtained a waiver may hold more than 25% but not more than 29% of a registered company's voting securities and maintain its waiver where the additional ownership results from a stock repurchase by the registered company. An institutional investor will not be deemed to hold voting securities for investment purposes unless the voting securities were acquired and are held in the ordinary course of business as an institutional investor and not for the purpose of causing, directly or indirectly, the election of a majority of the members of the Board of Directors of the registered company, a change in the corporate charter, bylaws, management, policies or operations of the registered company, or any of its gaming affiliates, or any other action which the Nevada Gaming Commission finds to be inconsistent with holding the registered company's voting securities for investment purposes only. Activities which are not deemed to be inconsistent with holding voting securities for investment purposes only include:

voting on all matters voted on by stockholders or interest holders;
making financial and other inquiries of management of the type normally made by securities analysts for informational purposes and not to cause a change in management, policies or operations; and
other activities that the Nevada Gaming Commission may determine to be consistent with such investment intent.

The articles of incorporation of Wynn Resorts include provisions intended to assist its implementation of the above restrictions.

Wynn Resorts is required to maintain a current stock ledger in Nevada which may be examined by the Nevada Gaming Authorities at any time. If any securities are held in trust by an agent or by a nominee, the record holder may be required to disclose the identity of the beneficial owner to the Nevada Gaming Authorities. A failure to make the disclosure may be grounds for finding the record holder unsuitable. We are required to provide maximum assistance in determining the identity of the beneficial owner of any of Wynn Resorts' voting securities. The Nevada Gaming Commission has the power to require the stock certificates of any registered company to bear a legend indicating that the securities are subject to the Nevada Gaming Control Act. The certificates representing shares of Wynn Resorts' common stock note that the shares are subject to a right of redemption and other restrictions set forth in Wynn Resorts' articles of incorporation and bylaws and that the shares are, or may become, subject to restrictions imposed by applicable gaming laws.

Consequences of Being Found Unsuitable. Any person who fails or refuses to apply for a finding of suitability or a license within 30 days after being ordered to do so by the Nevada Gaming Commission or by the Chairman of the Nevada Gaming Control Board, or who refuses or fails to pay the investigative costs incurred by the Nevada Gaming Authorities in connection with the investigation of its application, may be found unsuitable. The same restrictions apply to a record owner if the record owner, after request, fails to identify the beneficial owner. Any person found unsuitable and who holds, directly or indirectly, any beneficial ownership of any voting security or debt security of a registered company beyond the period of time as may be prescribed by the Nevada Gaming Commission may be guilty of a criminal offense. We will be subject to disciplinary action if, after we receive notice that a person is unsuitable to hold an equity interest or to have any other relationship with us, we:

pay that person any dividend or interest upon any voting securities;
allow that person to exercise, directly or indirectly, any voting right held by that person relating to Wynn Resorts;
pay remuneration in any form to that person for services rendered or otherwise; or
fail to pursue all lawful efforts to require the unsuitable person to relinquish such person's voting securities, including, if necessary, the immediate purchase of the voting securities for cash at fair market value.

Gaming Laws Relating to Debt Securities Ownership. The Nevada Gaming Commission may, in its discretion, require the owner of any debt or similar securities of a registered company, to file applications, be investigated and be found suitable to own the debt or other securities of the registered company if the Nevada Gaming Commission has reason to believe that such ownership would otherwise be inconsistent with the declared policies of the State of Nevada. If the Nevada Gaming

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Commission decides that a person is unsuitable to own the securities, then under the Nevada Gaming Control Act, the registered company can be sanctioned, including the loss of its approvals if, without the prior approval of the Nevada Gaming Commission, it:

pays to the unsuitable person any dividend, interest or any distribution whatsoever;
recognizes any voting right by the unsuitable person in connection with the securities;
pays the unsuitable person remuneration in any form; or
makes any payment to the unsuitable person by way of principal, redemption, conversion, exchange, liquidation or similar transaction.

Approval of Public Offerings. Wynn Resorts and Wynn Las Vegas, LLC may not make a public offering (debt or equity) without the prior approval of the Nevada Gaming Commission if the proceeds from the offering are intended to be used to construct, acquire or finance gaming facilities in Nevada, or to retire or extend obligations incurred for those purposes or for similar transactions. On March 21, 2013, the Nevada Gaming Commission granted us and Wynn Las Vegas, LLC prior approval, subject to certain conditions, to make public offerings for a period of three years (the "Shelf Approval"). We are currently in the process of obtaining a renewal for approval from the Nevada Gaming Commission. The Shelf Approval also applies to any affiliated company wholly owned by us that is a publicly traded corporation or would thereby become a publicly traded corporation pursuant to a public offering. The Shelf Approval may be rescinded for good cause without prior notice upon the issuance of an interlocutory stop order by the Chairman of the Nevada Gaming Control Board. The Shelf Approval does not constitute a finding, recommendation or approval by any of the Nevada Gaming Authorities as to the accuracy or adequacy of the offering memorandum or the investment merits of the securities. Any representation to the contrary is unlawful.

Approval of Changes in Control. A registered company must obtain the prior approval of the Nevada Gaming Commission with respect to a change in control through merger; consolidation; stock or asset acquisitions; management or consulting agreements; or any act or conduct by a person by which the person obtains control of the registered company.

Entities seeking to acquire control of a registered company must satisfy the Nevada Gaming Control Board and Nevada Gaming Commission with respect to a variety of stringent standards before assuming control of the registered company. The Nevada Gaming Commission may also require controlling stockholders, officers, directors and other persons having a material relationship or involvement with the entity proposing to acquire control to be investigated and licensed as part of the approval process relating to the transaction.

Approval of Defensive Tactics. The Nevada legislature has declared that some corporate acquisitions opposed by management, repurchases of voting securities and corporate defense tactics affecting Nevada corporate gaming licensees or affecting registered companies that are affiliated with the operations of Nevada gaming licensees may be harmful to stable and productive corporate gaming. The Nevada Gaming Commission has established a regulatory scheme to reduce the potential adverse effects of these business practices upon Nevada's gaming industry and to further Nevada's policy in order to:

assure the financial stability of corporate gaming licensees and their affiliated companies;
preserve the beneficial aspects of conducting business in the corporate form; and
promote a neutral environment for the orderly governance of corporate affairs.

Approvals may be required from the Nevada Gaming Commission before a registered company can make exceptional repurchases of voting securities above its current market price and before a corporate acquisition opposed by management can be consummated. The Nevada Gaming Control Act also requires prior approval of a plan of recapitalization proposed by a registered company's Board of Directors in response to a tender offer made directly to its stockholders for the purpose of acquiring control.

Fees and Taxes. License fees and taxes, computed in various ways depending on the type of gaming or activity involved, are payable to the State of Nevada and to the counties and cities in which the licensed subsidiaries' respective operations are conducted. Depending upon the particular fee or tax involved, these fees and taxes are payable monthly, quarterly or annually and are based upon:

a percentage of the gross revenue received;
the number of gaming devices operated; or
the number of table games operated.

A live entertainment tax also is imposed on admission charges where live entertainment is furnished.


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Foreign Gaming Investigations. Any person who is licensed, required to be licensed, registered, required to be registered in Nevada, or is under common control with such persons (collectively, "licensees"), and who proposes to become involved in a gaming venture outside of Nevada, is required to deposit with the Nevada Gaming Control Board, and thereafter maintain, a revolving fund in the amount of $10,000 to pay the expenses of investigation of the Nevada Gaming Control Board of the licensee's or registrant's participation in such foreign gaming. The revolving fund is subject to increase or decrease at the discretion of the Nevada Gaming Commission. Licensees and registrants are required to comply with the foreign gaming reporting requirements imposed by the Nevada Gaming Control Act. A licensee or registrant is also subject to disciplinary action by the Nevada Gaming Commission if it:

knowingly violates any laws of the foreign jurisdiction pertaining to the foreign gaming operation;
fails to conduct the foreign gaming operation in accordance with the standards of honesty and integrity required of Nevada gaming operations;
engages in any activity or enters into any association that is unsuitable because it poses an unreasonable threat to the control of gaming in Nevada, reflects or tends to reflect, discredit or disrepute upon the State of Nevada or gaming in Nevada, or is contrary to the gaming policies of Nevada;
engages in activities or enters into associations that are harmful to the State of Nevada or its ability to collect gaming taxes and fees; or
employs, contracts with or associates with a person in the foreign operation who has been denied a license or finding of suitability in Nevada on the ground of unsuitability.

Licenses for Conduct of Gaming and Sale of Alcoholic Beverages. The conduct of gaming activities and the service and sale of alcoholic beverages at Wynn Las Vegas are subject to licensing, control and regulation by the Clark County Liquor and Gaming Licensing Board, which has granted Wynn Las Vegas, LLC licenses for such purposes. In addition to approving Wynn Las Vegas, LLC, the Clark County Liquor and Gaming Licensing Board has the authority to approve all persons owning or controlling the stock of any corporation controlling a gaming license. Clark County gaming and liquor licenses are not transferable. The County has full power to limit, condition, suspend or revoke any license. Any disciplinary action could, and revocation would, have a substantial negative impact upon our operations.

Massachusetts

Introduction. On November 22, 2011, Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick signed Chapter 194 of the Acts of 2011 "An Act Establishing Expanded Gaming in the Commonwealth," legislation (the "Gaming Act") designed to provide significant benefits to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by advancing job creation and economic development. The Gaming Act allows for up to three destination resort casinos located in three geographically diverse regions across the Commonwealth and a single slots facility, not pegged to any particular region. The licensing fee for each resort casino is $85.0 million and requires a capital investment, to include a hotel facility, of at least $500.0 million. The Commonwealth will receive 25% of gross gaming revenues.

The Gaming Act also called for the creation of a five-member independent body, the Massachusetts Gaming Commission (the "MGC"), to oversee the implementation and licensing process, as well as regulate the operation of gaming facilities. The MGC is in the process of promulgating detailed regulations to govern the operations of the resort casinos and the slot parlor facility. The slot facility, located in Plainville, MA, opened in June 2015.

Owner and Operator Licensing Requirements. Our indirect wholly owned subsidiary, Wynn MA, LLC, was the "applicant" under the MGC's Phase 1 regulations and was determined to be suitable for the purpose of holding a Category 1 Gaming License. On September 17, 2014, the MGC designated Wynn MA, LLC the award winner of the Greater Boston (Region A) gaming license. On November 7, 2014, the gaming license awarded to us became effective.

Company Registration Requirements. In addition, pursuant to the Phase 1 regulations, the following entities and persons are deemed to be "qualifiers" subject to investigation: all members, transferees of a member's interest, directors and managers of the licensee and, in the judgment of the MGC, each lender, each holder of indebtedness, each underwriter, each close associate, each executive and each agent. As a result, Wynn Resorts, its key employees and its directors were therefore subject to a suitability investigation. Wynn Resorts and all individual qualifiers were found suitable by the MGC. As our progress in Massachusetts continues, additional entities and key employees may be required to file applications with the MGC and are or may be required to be licensed or found suitable by the MGC. Following Wynn America, an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Wynn Resorts, Limited, entering into a senior secured credit facility in November 2014, the MGC has requested additional applications, which are pending. A finding of suitability is comparable to licensing, and both require submission of detailed personal and financial information followed by a thorough investigation. An applicant for licensing or an applicant for a

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finding of suitability must pay or must cause to be paid all the costs of the investigation. Changes in licensed positions must be reported to the MGC.

If the MGC were to find an officer, director or key employee unsuitable for licensing or unsuitable to continue having a relationship with us, we would have to sever all relationships with that person. In addition, the MGC may require us to terminate the employment of any person who refuses to file appropriate applications. Determinations of suitability or questions pertaining to licensing are not subject to judicial review.

Consequences of Violating Gaming Laws. If the MGC determines that we have violated the Gaming Act or any of its regulations, it could limit, condition, suspend or revoke our registrations and gaming license. In addition, the MGC set forth certain conditions in our gaming license. Any violation of the Gaming Act, its regulations or any of our license conditions resulting in a limitation, conditioning or suspension of our gaming license would have a significant negative effect on our Massachusetts gaming operations.

Licenses for Conduct of Gaming and Sale of Alcoholic Beverages. Pursuant to the Gaming Act, the MGC may grant a gaming beverage license for the sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages for a gaming establishment. The division of gaming liquor enforcement of the Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission will have the authority to enforce, regulate and control the distribution of alcoholic beverages in a gaming establishment. The MGC may revoke, suspend, refuse to renew or refuse to transfer a gaming beverage license for violations of the Gaming Act that pertain to the sale and distribution of alcohol consumed on the premises and the regulations adopted by the MGC. The MGC is in the process of adopting regulations for the issuance of gaming beverage licenses. These regulations and any changes in applicable laws, regulations and procedures could have significant negative effects on our future Massachusetts gaming operations and results of operations.

Other Regulations

In addition to gaming regulations, we are subject to extensive local, state, federal and foreign laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we operate. These include, but are not limited to, laws and regulations relating to alcoholic beverages, environmental matters, employment and immigration, currency and other transactions, taxation, zoning and building codes, marketing and advertising, lending, debt collection, privacy, telemarketing, money laundering, laws and regulations administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control, and anti-bribery laws, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Such laws and regulations could change or could be interpreted differently in the future, or new laws and regulations could be enacted. Any material changes, new laws or regulations, or material differences in interpretations by courts or governmental authorities could adversely affect our business and operating results.

Seasonality

We may experience fluctuations in revenues and cash flows from month to month; however, we do not believe that our business is materially impacted by seasonality.

Employees

As of December 31, 2015, we had approximately 20,800 total employees (including approximately 8,900 in Macau and 11,900 in Las Vegas).

Our ten-year collective bargaining agreement with the Culinary and Bartenders Union, which covers approximately 5,590 employees at our Las Vegas Operations, was set to expire in July 2015.  We have signed an extension of the agreement and are currently negotiating a new agreement.  In November 2010, we entered into a ten-year collective bargaining agreement with the Transportation Workers Union, which covers 444 table games dealers at our Las Vegas Operations.  Certain other unions may seek to organize the workers of our resorts.

Intellectual Property

Among our most important marks are our trademarks and service marks that use the name "WYNN." Wynn Resorts has registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office ("PTO") a variety of the WYNN-related trademarks and service marks in connection with a variety of goods and services.

We have also filed applications with various foreign patent and trademark registries, including in Macau, China, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, certain European countries and various other jurisdictions throughout the world, to register a variety of WYNN-related trademarks and service marks in connection with a variety of goods and services.

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We recognize that our intellectual property assets, including the word and logo version of "WYNN," are among our most valuable assets. As a result, and in connection with expansion of our resorts and gaming activities outside the United States, we have undertaken a program to register our trademarks and other intellectual property rights in relevant jurisdictions. We have retained counsel and intend to take all steps necessary to protect our intellectual property rights against unauthorized use throughout the world.

On August 6, 2004, we entered into agreements with Mr. Wynn that confirm and clarify our rights to use the "Wynn" surname and Mr. Wynn's persona in connection with our casino resorts. Under a Surname Rights Agreement, Mr. Wynn has acknowledged our exclusive, fully paid-up, perpetual, worldwide right to use, and to own and register trademarks and service marks incorporating, the "Wynn" surname for casino resorts and related businesses, together with the right to sublicense the name and marks to our affiliates. Under a Rights of Publicity License, Mr. Wynn has granted us the exclusive, royalty-free, worldwide right to use his full name, persona and related rights of publicity for casino resorts and related businesses, together with the ability to sublicense the persona and publicity rights to our affiliates, until October 24, 2017.

We have also registered various domain names with various domain registrars around the world. Our domain registrations extend to various foreign countries such as ".com.cn" and ".com.hk." We pursue domain related infringement on a case by case basis depending on the infringing domain in question. The information found on these websites is not a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other report we file or furnish to the SEC.

For more information regarding the Company's intellectual property matters see Item 1A—"Risk Factors".

Forward-Looking Statements

We make forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K based upon the beliefs and assumptions of our management and on information currently available to us. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, information about our business strategy, development activities, competition and possible or assumed future results of operations, throughout this report and are often preceded by, followed by or include the words "may," "will," "should," "would," "could," "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "estimate," "intend," "plan," "continue" or the negative of these terms or similar expressions.

Forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those we express in these forward-looking statements, including the risks and uncertainties in Item 1A—"Risk Factors" and other factors we describe from time to time in our periodic filings with the SEC, such as:

our dependence on Stephen A. Wynn;
general global political and economic conditions, particularly in China, which may impact levels of travel, leisure and consumer spending;
construction risks (including disputes with and defaults by contractors and subcontractors; construction, equipment or staffing problems; shortages of materials or skilled labor; environment, health and safety issues; and unanticipated cost increases);
factors affecting the development and success of new gaming and resort properties (including limited labor resources in Macau and government labor and gaming policies, unexpected cost increases, environmental regulation and our ability to secure federal, state and local permits and approvals necessary for our construction projects);
changes in the valuation of the promissory note we issued in connection with the redemption of Mr. Okada's shares;
restrictions or conditions on visitation by citizens of mainland China to Macau;
potential violations of law by Mr. Kazuo Okada, a former shareholder of ours;
pending or future legal proceedings, regulatory or enforcement actions or probity investigations;
any violations by us of the anti-money laundering laws or Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;
competition in the casino/hotel and resort industries and actions taken by our competitors, including new development and construction activities of competitors;
our dependence on a limited number of resorts and locations for all of our cash flow;
our relationships with Macau gaming promoters;
our ability to maintain our customer relationships and collect and enforce gaming receivables;
extensive regulation of our business (including the Chinese government's ongoing anti-corruption campaign) and the cost of compliance or failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations;
our ability to maintain our gaming licenses and concessions;

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changes in gaming laws or regulations;
changes in federal, foreign, or state tax laws or the administration of such laws;
cybersecurity risk including misappropriation of customer information or other breaches of information security;
our current and future insurance coverage levels;
conditions precedent to funding under our credit facilities;
continued compliance with all provisions in our debt agreements;
leverage and debt service (including sensitivity to fluctuations in interest rates);
the impact on the travel and leisure industry from factors such as an outbreak of an infectious disease, extreme weather patterns or natural disasters, military conflicts and any future security alerts and/or terrorist attacks;
our subsidiaries' ability to pay us dividends and distributions;
our ability to protect our intellectual property rights;
doing business in foreign locations such as Macau;
legalization of gaming in certain jurisdictions; and
changes in exchange rates.

Further information on potential factors that could affect our financial condition, results of operations and business are included in this report and our other filings with the SEC. You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based only on information available to us at the time this statement is made. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

You should carefully consider the risk factors set forth below, as well as the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, regarding matters which could have an adverse effect, including a material one, on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Risks Related to our Business

The loss of Stephen A. Wynn could significantly harm our business.

Our ability to maintain our competitive position is dependent to a large degree on the efforts, skills and reputation of Stephen A. Wynn, the Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer and one of the principal stockholders of Wynn Resorts. Mr. Wynn's employment agreement expires in October 2022. However, we cannot assure you that Mr. Wynn will remain with Wynn Resorts. If we lose the services of Mr. Wynn, or if he is unable to devote sufficient attention to our operations for any other reason, our business may be significantly impaired.

Visitation to Macau may continue to decline due to economic disruptions in mainland China, restrictions on visitations to Macau from citizens of mainland China and the anti-corruption campaign.

A significant number of our gaming customers at Wynn Macau | Encore come from mainland China. Continued economic disruption, contraction and uncertainty in China could further impact the number of patrons visiting our Macau Operations or the amount they may be willing to spend. In addition, policies adopted from time to time by the Chinese government, including any travel restrictions imposed by China on its citizens such as restrictions imposed on exit visas granted to residents of mainland China for travel to Macau, could disrupt the number of visitors from mainland China to our property. It is not known when, or if, policies similar to those implemented in 2009 restricting visitation by mainland Chinese citizens to Macau and Hong Kong, will be put in place and travel policies may be adjusted, without notice, in the future. Furthermore, the Chinese government's ongoing anti-corruption campaign has influenced the behavior of Chinese consumers and their spending patterns both domestically and abroad. The campaign has specifically led to tighter monetary transfer regulations, including real time monitoring of certain financial channels, which has disrupted and may continue to impact the number of visitors and the amount of money they bring from mainland China to Macau.  The overall effect of the campaign and monetary transfer restrictions may continue to impact or result in an even greater decline in visitations and may continue to negatively affect our revenues and results of operations.


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Our business is particularly sensitive to reductions in discretionary consumer and corporate spending as a result of downturns in the global economy.

Consumer demand for casino/hotel resorts, trade shows and conventions and for the type of luxury amenities that we offer is particularly sensitive to downturns in the global economy, which adversely impact discretionary spending on leisure activities. Changes in discretionary consumer spending or consumer preferences brought about by factors such as perceived or actual general global economic conditions, high unemployment, weakness in housing or oil markets, perceived or actual changes in disposable consumer income and wealth, an economic recession and changes in consumer confidence in the global economy, or fears of war and future acts of terrorism have in the past and could in the future reduce customer demand for the luxury amenities and leisure activities we offer, and may have a significant negative impact on our operating results.

Also, consumer demographics and preferences may evolve over time, which, for example, has resulted in recent growth in consumer demand for non-gaming offerings. Our success depends in part on our ability to anticipate the preferences of consumers and react to those trends and any failure to do so may negatively impact our operating results.

All our current and future construction projects will be subject to significant development and construction risks, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows from this planned facility.

Major construction projects of the scope and scale of Wynn Palace and the Wynn resort in Massachusetts entail significant risks, including:

shortages of, and price increases in, materials or skilled labor;
changes to plans and specifications;
delays in obtaining or inability to obtain requisite licenses, permits and authorizations from regulatory authorities;
changes in laws and regulations, or in the interpretation and enforcement of laws and regulations, applicable to gaming, leisure, real estate development or construction projects;
unforeseen engineering, environmental and/or geological problems;
labor disputes or work stoppages;
disputes with and defaults by contractors and subcontractors;
personal injuries to workers and other persons;
environment, health and safety issues, including site accidents;
delays or interference from severe weather or natural disasters;
geological, construction, excavation, regulatory and equipment problems;
unanticipated cost increases; and
unavailability of construction equipment.

Construction, equipment or staffing problems or difficulties in obtaining any of the requisite licenses, permits and authorizations from regulatory authorities could increase the total cost, delay or prevent the construction or opening or otherwise affect the design and features of Wynn Palace and/or the Wynn resort in Massachusetts.

We anticipate that only some of the subcontractors engaged for these projects will post bonds guaranteeing timely completion of the subcontractor's work and payment for all of that subcontractor's labor and materials. These bonds may not be adequate to ensure completion of the work.

Our Wynn Palace facility or the Wynn resort in Massachusetts facility may not commence operations on schedule and construction costs for these projects may exceed budgeted amounts. Failure to complete these projects on schedule or within budget may have a significant negative effect on us and on our ability to make payments on our debt. On November 18, 2015, we were notified by the general contractor of Wynn Palace that the facility will not be ready to open by the projected early completion date of March 25, 2016. The general contractor has expressed its commitment to the completion of the project by the required date but has advised us that they dispute our assessment of liquidated damages.


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Our new projects may not be successful.

In addition to the construction and regulatory risks associated with our current and future construction projects, we cannot assure you that the level of consumer demand for our casino resorts or for the type of luxury amenities that we will offer will meet our expectations.  The operating results of our new projects may be materially different than the operating results of our current integrated resorts due to, among other reasons, differences in consumer and corporate spending and preferences in new geographic areas, increased competition from other markets or other developments that may be beyond our control.  In addition, our new projects may be more sensitive to certain risks, including risks associated with downturns in the economy, than the integrated resorts we currently operate.  The demands imposed by new developments on our managerial, operational and other resources may impact our operation of our existing resorts.  If any of these issues were to occur, it could adversely affect our prospects, financial condition, or results of operations.

Mr. Okada and his affiliates have challenged the redemption of Aruze's Shares. An adverse judgment or settlement resulting from the related litigation could reduce our profits or limit our ability to operate our business.

On February 18, 2012, Wynn Resorts' Gaming Compliance Committee received an independent report by Freeh, Sporkin & Sullivan, LLP (the "Freeh Report") detailing a pattern of misconduct by the Okada Parties. After receiving the Freeh Report, the Board of Directors of Wynn Resorts determined that each of the Okada Parties was "unsuitable" within the meaning of Article VII of Wynn Resorts' articles of incorporation and redeemed all of Aruze's shares of Wynn Resorts' common stock. See Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies." On February 19, 2012, Wynn Resorts filed a complaint in the Eighth Judicial District Court, Clark County, Nevada against the Okada Parties (as amended, the "Complaint"), alleging breaches of fiduciary duty and related claims (the "Redemption Action") arising from the activities addressed in the Freeh Report. The Company is seeking compensatory and special damages as well as a declaration that it acted lawfully and in full compliance with its articles of incorporation, bylaws and other governing documents in redeeming and canceling the shares of Aruze. On March 12, 2012, the Okada Parties filed an answer denying the claims and a counterclaim (as amended, the "Counterclaim") against the Company, each of the members of the Company's Board of Directors (other than Mr. Okada) and Wynn Resorts' General Counsel (collectively, the "Wynn Parties"), seeking, among other things a declaration that the redemption of Aruze's shares was void, an injunction restoring Aruze's share ownership, damages in an unspecified amount and rescission of the Amended and Restated Stockholders Agreement, dated as of January 6, 2010, by and among Aruze, Stephen A. Wynn, and Elaine P. Wynn (the "Stockholders Agreement"). In connection with the Redemption Action and Counterclaim (1) various Okada Parties filed a complaint in the Tokyo District Court against the Company, all members of the Board of Directors (other than Mr. Okada) and the Company's General Counsel alleging that the press release issued by the Company in connection with the Redemption Action has damaged their social evaluation and credibility and seeking damages and legal fees, (2) four federal derivative actions were commenced against the Company and all members of its Board of Directors, (3) two state derivative actions were commenced against the Company and all members of its Board of Directors (4) regulatory inquiries and investigations were initiated against the Company, and (5) the Okada Parties filed a complaint in the Court of First Instance of Macau (against Wynn Macau SA and certain individuals who are or were directors of Wynn Macau SA and/or Wynn Macau, Limited. See Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies," for a full description of these matters and status as of the date of this report. The Company is vigorously pursuing its claims against the Okada Parties, and together with the other counter-defendants, vigorously defending against the Counterclaim and other actions asserted against them. However, as with all litigation, the outcome of these proceedings cannot be predicted. Any adverse judgments or settlements involving payment of a material sum of money could cause a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and could expose us to additional claims by third parties, including current or former investors or regulators. Any adverse judgments or settlements would reduce our profits and could limit our ability to operate our business.

Potential violations of law by Mr. Okada (former director and formerly the largest beneficial owner of our shares) and his affiliates could have adverse consequences to the Company.

The Freeh Reported detailed numerous instances of conduct constituting prima facie violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "FCPA") by Kazuo Okada (formerly the largest beneficial owner of our shares) and certain of his affiliates. See Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies." The Company has provided the Freeh Report to applicable regulators and has been cooperating with related investigations of such regulators. The conduct of Mr. Okada and his affiliates and the outcome of any resulting regulatory findings could have adverse consequences to the Company. A finding by regulatory authorities that Mr. Okada violated the FCPA on Company property and/or otherwise involved the Company in criminal or civil violations could result in actions by regulatory authorities against the Company. Relatedly, regulators have and may pursue separate investigations into the Company's compliance with applicable laws in connection with the Okada matter, as discussed in Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17

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"Commitments and Contingencies." While the Company believes that it is in full compliance with all applicable laws, any such investigations could result in actions by regulators against the Company, which could negatively affect the Company's financial condition or results of operations.

Change in valuation of our Redemption Price Promissory Note could have a negative impact on our financial results.

We record the Redemption Note at fair value in accordance with applicable accounting guidance. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, the fair value of the Redemption Note was $1.88 billion and $1.94 billion, respectively. In determining this fair value, we estimated the Redemption Note's present value using discounted cash flows with a probability-weighted expected return for redemption assumptions and a discount rate, which included time value and non-performance risk adjustments commensurate with the risk of the Redemption Note.

Considerations for the redemption assumptions included the stated maturity of the Redemption Note, uncertainty of the related cash flows as well as potential effects of the following: uncertainties surrounding the potential outcome and timing of pending litigation with the Okada Parties (see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies"); the outcome of on-going investigations of Aruze by the United States Attorney's Office, the U.S. Department of Justice and the Nevada Gaming Control Board; and other potential legal and regulatory actions. In addition, in the furtherance of various future business objectives, we considered our ability, at our sole option, to prepay the Redemption Note at any time in accordance with its terms without penalty. Accordingly, we reasonably determined that the estimated life of the Redemption Note could be less than the contractual life of the Redemption Note.

In determination of the appropriate discount rate to be used in the estimated present value, the Redemption Note's subordinated position and credit risk relative to all other debt in our capital structure and credit ratings associated with our traded debt were considered. Observable inputs for the risk free rate based on Federal Reserve rates for U.S. Treasury securities and credit risk spread based on a yield curve index of similarly rated debt was used. 

A change in any of the assumptions discussed above could result in a change in the fair value of this Redemption Note and significantly impact our financial results.

Ongoing litigation and other disputes with Mr. Okada and certain of his affiliates could distract management and result in negative publicity and additional scrutiny of regulators.

There has been widespread publicity of the findings in the Freeh Report of prima facie violations of law by Mr. Okada and his affiliates, the Board of Director's unsuitability finding, the redemption of shares and related litigation. The actions, litigation, and publicity could reduce demand for shares of Wynn Resorts and Wynn Macau, Limited and thereby have a negative impact on the trading prices of their respective shares. The disputes may also lead to additional scrutiny from regulators, which could lead to investigations relating to, and possibly a negative impact on, the Company's gaming licenses, and possibly have a negative impact on the Company's ability to bid successfully for new gaming market opportunities.

Any violation of applicable Anti-Money Laundering laws or regulations or the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act could adversely affect our business, performance, prospects, value, financial condition, and results of operations.

We deal with significant amounts of cash in our operations and are subject to various reporting and anti-money laundering laws and regulations. Recently, U.S. governmental authorities have evidenced an increased focus on the gaming industry and compliance with anti-money laundering laws and regulations. From time to time, the Company receives governmental and regulatory inquiries about compliance with such laws and regulations.  The Company cooperates with all such inquiries. Any violation of anti-money laundering laws or regulations could adversely affect our business, performance, prospects, value, financial condition, and results of operations.

Further, we have operations, and a significant portion of our revenue is derived from customers, outside of the United States. We are therefore subject to regulations imposed by the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws that generally prohibit U.S. companies and their intermediaries from offering, promising, authorizing or making improper payments to foreign government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Violations of the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws may result in severe criminal and civil sanctions as well as other penalties and the SEC and U.S. Department of Justice have increased their enforcement activities with respect such laws and regulations.

Internal control policies and procedures and employee training and compliance programs that we have implemented to deter prohibited practices may not be effective in prohibiting our directors, employees, contractors or agents from violating or

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circumventing our policies and the law. If we or our directors, employees or agents fail to comply with applicable laws or Company policies governing our operations, the Company may face investigations, prosecutions and other legal proceedings and actions which could result in civil penalties, administrative remedies and criminal sanctions. Any such government investigations, prosecutions or other legal proceedings or actions could adversely affect our business, performance, prospects, value, financial condition, and results of operations.

Mr. Okada failed to comply with internal training in these matters and failed to return to Wynn Resorts an executed Acknowledgment agreeing to comply with the Wynn Resorts Code of Business Conduct and Ethics. On February 19, 2012, Wynn Resorts' filed a complaint in Nevada state court against Mr. Okada and other entities alleging, among other things, breach of fiduciary duty in connection with alleged violations of the FCPA. For information on such complaint, the Freeh Report, which detailed numerous instances of conduct constituting prima facie violations of FCPA by Mr. Okada and certain of his affiliates, and the redemption Aruze's shares, see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies."

Our casino, hotel, convention and other facilities face intense competition, which may increase in the future.

The casino/hotel industry is highly competitive. Our Macau Operations face intense competition with approximately 36 casinos currently operating in Macau. We hold a concession under one of only three gaming concessions and three subconcessions authorized by the Macau government to operate casinos in Macau. The Macau government has had the ability to grant additional gaming concessions since April 2009. If the Macau government were to allow additional competitors to operate in Macau through the grant of additional concessions or subconcessions, we would face additional competition, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Several of the current concessionaires and subconcessionaires have opened additional facilities in the Cotai area of Macau during 2015 or expect to open in 2016 and 2017. These Cotai facilities are expected to increase total hotel room inventory by approximately 25.5% from the current inventory and significantly increase other gaming and non-gaming offerings in Macau.

Our Macau resort complex also faces competition from casinos located in other areas of Asia, such as Resorts World Sentosa and Marina Bay Sands in Singapore and Resorts World Genting, located outside Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. We also face competition from casinos in the Philippines, such as Solaire Resort and Casino and City of Dreams Manila. We also encounter competition from other major gaming centers located around the world, including Australia and Las Vegas, cruise ships in Asia that offer gaming, and other casinos throughout Asia. Further, if current efforts to legalize gaming in other Asian countries are successful, we will face additional regional competition.

In Las Vegas, we compete with other Las Vegas Strip hotels and with other hotel casinos in Las Vegas on the basis of overall atmosphere, range of amenities, level of service, price, location, entertainment, theme and size, among other factors.

Wynn Las Vegas | Encore also competes with other casino/hotel facilities in other cities. The proliferation of gaming activities in other areas could significantly harm our business as well. In particular, the legalization or expansion of casino gaming in or near metropolitan areas from which we attract customers could have a negative effect on our business. In addition, new or renovated casinos in Macau or elsewhere in Asia could draw Asian gaming customers away from our Las Vegas Operations.

We are entirely dependent on a limited number of resorts for all of our cash flow, which subjects us to greater risks than a gaming company with more operating properties.

We are currently entirely dependent upon our Macau Operations and Las Vegas Operations for all of our operating cash flow. As a result, we are subject to a greater degree of risk than a gaming company with more operating properties or greater geographic diversification. The risks to which we have a greater degree of exposure include the following:

local economic and competitive conditions;
changes in local and state governmental laws and regulations, including gaming laws and regulations;
natural and other disasters;
a decline in the number of visitors to Las Vegas or Macau;
a decrease in gaming and non-casino activities at our resorts; and
the outbreak of infectious diseases.

 Any of the factors outlined above could negatively affect our ability to generate sufficient cash flow to make payments or maintain our covenants with respect to our debt.

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We could encounter substantial cost increases higher than expected in the development of our projects.

We are currently constructing Wynn Palace, in the Cotai area of Macau, and in development of a Wynn resort in Massachusetts. The total project budget for Wynn Palace, including construction costs, capitalized interest, pre-opening expenses, land costs and financing fees, is $4.1 billion.

The projected development costs for Wynn Palace reflect our best estimates and the actual development costs may be higher than expected. Contingencies that have been set aside by us to cover cost overruns may be insufficient to cover the full amount of such overruns. If these contingencies are not sufficient to cover these costs, or if we are not able to recover damages for these delays and contingencies, we may not have the funds required to pay the excess costs and these projects may not be completed. Failure to complete these projects may negatively affect our financial condition, our results of operations and our ability to pay our debt.

Our business relies on high-end, international customers. We often extend credit, and we may not be able to collect gaming receivables from our credit players or credit play may decrease.

General. A significant portion of our table games revenue at our resorts is attributable to the play of a limited number of international customers. The loss or a reduction in the play of the most significant of these customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. A downturn in economic conditions in the countries in which these customers reside could cause a further reduction in the frequency of visits by and revenue generated from these customers.

We conduct our gaming activities on a credit as well as a cash basis. The casino credit we extend is generally unsecured and due on demand. We will extend casino credit to those customers whose level of play and financial resources, in the opinion of management, warrant such an extension. The collectability of receivables from international customers could be negatively affected by future business or economic trends or by significant events in the countries in which these customers reside.

In addition, premium gaming is more volatile than other forms of gaming, and variances in win-loss results attributable to high-end gaming may have a positive or negative impact on cash flow and earnings in a particular quarter.

Wynn Las Vegas | Encore. While gaming debts evidenced by a credit instrument, including what is commonly referred to as a "marker," are enforceable under the current laws of Nevada, and judgments on gaming debts are enforceable in all states of the United States under the Full Faith and Credit Clause of the United States Constitution, other jurisdictions may determine that direct or indirect enforcement of gaming debts is against public policy. Although courts of some foreign nations will enforce gaming debts directly and the assets in the United States of foreign debtors may be used to satisfy a judgment, judgments on gaming debts from U.S. courts are not binding on the courts of many foreign nations. We cannot assure that we will be able to collect the full amount of gaming debts owed to us, even in jurisdictions that enforce them. Changes in economic conditions may make it more difficult to assess creditworthiness and more difficult to collect the full amount of any gaming debt owed to us. Our inability to collect gaming debts could have a significant negative impact on our operating results.

Wynn Macau | Encore. Although the law in Macau permits casino operators to extend credit to gaming customers, Wynn Macau may not be able to collect all of its gaming receivables from its credit players. We expect that Wynn Macau will be able to enforce these obligations only in a limited number of jurisdictions, including Macau. To the extent our gaming customers are visitors from other jurisdictions, we may not have access to a forum in which we will be able to collect all of our gaming receivables because, among other reasons, courts of many jurisdictions do not enforce gaming debts and we may encounter forums that will refuse to enforce such debts. Our inability to collect gaming debts could have a significant negative impact on our operating results.

Currently, the gaming tax in Macau is calculated as a percentage of gross gaming revenue. However, unlike Nevada, the gross gaming revenue calculation in Macau does not include deductions for uncollectible gaming debts. As a result, if we extend credit to our customers in Macau and are unable to collect on the related receivables from them, we remain obligated to pay taxes on our winnings from these customers.


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We are subject to extensive state and local regulation, and licensing and gaming authorities have significant control over our operations. The cost of compliance or failure to comply with such regulations and authorities could have a negative effect on our business.

The operations of our resorts are contingent upon our obtaining and maintaining all necessary licenses, permits, approvals, registrations, findings of suitability, orders and authorizations in the jurisdictions in which our resorts are located. The laws, regulations and ordinances requiring these licenses, permits and other approvals generally relate to the responsibility, financial stability and character of the owners and managers of gaming operations, as well as persons financially interested or involved in gaming operations. The Nevada Gaming Commission may require the holder of any debt or securities we or Wynn Las Vegas, LLC issue to file applications, be investigated and be found suitable to own Wynn Resorts' securities if it has reason to believe that the security ownership would be inconsistent with the declared policies of the State of Nevada.

The Company's articles of incorporation also provide that, to the extent required by the gaming authority making the determination of unsuitability or to the extent the Board of Directors determines, in its sole discretion, that a person is likely to jeopardize the Company's or any affiliate's application for, receipt of, approval for, right to the use of, or entitlement to, any gaming license, shares of Wynn Resorts' capital stock that are owned or controlled by an unsuitable person or its affiliates are subject to redemption by Wynn Resorts. The redemption price may be paid in cash, by promissory note, or both, as required, and pursuant to the terms established by, the applicable gaming authority and, if not, as Wynn Resorts elects.

On February 18, 2012, after receiving the Freeh Report, the Board of Directors of Wynn Resorts determined that the Okada Parties were "unsuitable" within the meaning of Article VII of Wynn Resorts' articles of incorporation and redeemed all of Aruze's shares of Wynn Resorts' common stock. See Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies."

Nevada and Massachusetts regulatory authorities also have broad powers to request detailed financial and other information, to limit, condition, suspend or revoke a registration, gaming license or related approvals, approve changes in our operations and levy fines or require forfeiture of assets for violations of gaming laws or regulations. Complying with gaming laws, regulations and license requirements is costly. Any change in the Nevada and Massachusetts laws, regulations or licenses applicable to our business or a violation of any current or future laws or regulations applicable to our business or gaming licenses could require us to make substantial expenditures and forfeit assets, and would negatively affect our gaming operations.

Wynn Macau's operations are subject to unique risks. Failure to adhere to the regulatory and gaming environment in Macau could result in the revocation of Wynn Macau's concession or otherwise negatively affect its operations in Macau. Moreover, we are subject to the risk that U.S. regulators could determine that Macau's gaming regulatory framework has not developed in a way that would permit us to conduct operations in Macau in a manner consistent with the way in which we intend, or the Nevada gaming authorities require us, to conduct our operations in the United States.

Compliance with changing laws and regulations may result in additional expenses and compliance risks.

Changing laws and regulations are creating uncertainty for gaming companies. These changing laws and regulations are subject to varying interpretations in many cases due to their lack of specificity, recent issuance and/or lack of guidance. As a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. In addition, further regulation of casinos, financial institutions and public companies is possible. This could result in continuing uncertainty and higher costs regarding compliance matters. Due to our commitment to maintain high standards of compliance with laws and public disclosure, our efforts to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards have resulted in and are likely to continue to result in increased general and administrative expense. In addition, we are subject to different parties' interpretation of our compliance with these new and changing laws and regulations.
 
Win rates for our gaming operations depend on a variety of factors, some of which are beyond our control.

The gaming industry is characterized by an element of chance. In addition to the element of chance, win rates are also affected by other factors, including players' skill and experience, the mix of games played, the financial resources of players, the spread of table limits, the volume of bets played, the amount of time played and undiscovered acts of fraud or cheating. Our gross gaming revenues are mainly derived from the difference between our casino winnings and the casino winnings of our gaming customers. Since there is an inherent element of chance in the gaming industry, we do not have full control over our winnings or the winnings of our gaming customers.


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Our information technology and other systems are subject to cyber security risk including misappropriation of customer information or other breaches of information security.

We rely on information technology and other systems (including those maintained by third parties with whom we contract to provide data services) to maintain and transmit large volumes of customer financial information, credit card settlements, credit card funds transmissions, mailing lists and reservations information and other personally identifiable information. We also maintain important internal company data such as personally identifiable information about our employees and information relating to our operations. The systems and processes we have implemented to protect customers, employees and company information are subject to the ever-changing risk of compromised security. These risks include cyber and physical security breaches, system failure, computer viruses, and negligent or intentional misuse by customers, company employees, or employees of third-party vendors. The steps we take to deter and mitigate these risks may not be successful and our insurance coverage for protecting against cybersecurity risks may not be sufficient. Our third-party information system service providers face risks relating to cybersecurity similar to ours, and we do not directly control any of such parties' information security operations. A significant theft, loss or fraudulent use of customer or company data maintained by us or by a third-party service provider could have an adverse effect on our reputation, cause a material disruption to our operations and management team, and result in remediation expenses, regulatory penalties and litigation by customers and other parties whose information was subject to such attacks, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows.

Our collection and use of personal data are governed by privacy laws and regulations and privacy law is an area that changes often and varies significantly by jurisdiction. Compliance with applicable privacy regulations may increase our operating costs and/or adversely impact our ability to market our products, properties and services to our guests. In addition, non-compliance with applicable privacy regulations by us (or in some circumstances non-compliance by third parties engaged by us) or a breach of security on systems storing our data may result in damage of reputation and/or subject us to fines, payment of damages, lawsuits or restrictions on our use or transfer of data.

Our business is particularly sensitive to the willingness of our customers to travel. Acts or the threat of acts of terrorism, regional political events and developments in the conflicts in certain countries could cause severe disruptions in air travel that reduce the number of visitors to our facilities, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

We are dependent on the willingness of our customers to travel. Only a small amount of our business is and will be generated by local residents. Most of our customers travel to reach our Las Vegas and Macau properties. Acts of terrorism or concerns over the possibility of such acts may severely disrupt domestic and international travel, which would result in a decrease in customer visits to Las Vegas and Macau, including our properties. Regional conflicts could have a similar effect on domestic and international travel. Disruptions in air or other forms of travel as a result of any further terrorist act, outbreak of hostilities or escalation of war or worldwide infectious disease outbreak would have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

We are a parent company and our primary source of cash is and will be distributions from our subsidiaries.

We are a parent company with limited business operations of our own. Our main asset is the capital stock of our subsidiaries. We conduct most of our business operations through our direct and indirect subsidiaries. Accordingly, our primary sources of cash are dividends and distributions with respect to our ownership interests in our subsidiaries that are derived from the earnings and cash flow generated by our operating properties. Our subsidiaries might not generate sufficient earnings and cash flow to pay dividends or distributions in the future.
 
Our subsidiaries' payments to us will be contingent upon their earnings and upon other business considerations. In addition, our subsidiaries' debt instruments and other agreements limit or prohibit certain payments of dividends or other distributions to us. We expect that future debt instruments for the financing of our other developments will contain similar restrictions. An inability of our subsidiaries to pay us dividends and distributions would have a significant negative effect on our liquidity.


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If a third party successfully challenges our ownership of, or right to use, the Wynn-related trademarks and/or service marks, our business or results of operations could be harmed.

Our intellectual property assets, especially the logo version of "Wynn," are among our most valuable assets. We have filed applications with the PTO and with various foreign patent and trademark registries including registries in Macau, China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Japan, certain European countries and various other jurisdictions throughout the world, to register a variety of WYNN-related trademarks and service marks in connection with a variety of goods and services. These marks include "WYNN RESORTS," "WYNN DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT," "WYNN LAS VEGAS," "WYNN MACAU," "WYNN PALACE" and "ENCORE." Some of the applications are based upon ongoing use and others are based upon a bona fide intent to use the marks in the future.

A common element of most of these marks is the use of the surname "WYNN." As a general rule, a surname (or the portion of a mark primarily constituting a surname) is not eligible for registration unless the surname has acquired "secondary meaning." To date, we have been successful in demonstrating to the PTO such secondary meaning for the Wynn name, in certain of the applications, based upon factors including Mr. Wynn's prominence as a resort developer, but we cannot assure you that we will be successful with the other pending applications.

Federal registrations are not completely dispositive of the right to such marks. Third parties who claim prior rights with respect to similar marks may nonetheless challenge our right to obtain registrations or our use of the marks and seek to overcome the presumptions afforded by such registrations.

Furthermore, due to the increased use of technology in computerized gaming machines and in business operations generally, other forms of intellectual property rights (such as patents and copyrights) are becoming of increased relevance. It is possible that, in the future, third parties might assert superior intellectual property rights or allege that their intellectual property rights cover some aspect of our operations. The defense of such allegations may result in substantial expenses, and, if such claims are successfully prosecuted, may have a material impact on our business. Efforts we take to acquire and protect our intellectual property rights against unauthorized use throughout the world, which may include retaining counsel and commencing litigation in various jurisdictions, may be costly and may not be successful in protecting and preserving the status and value of our intellectual property assets.

Our insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover all possible losses that we could suffer, including losses resulting from terrorism, and our insurance costs may increase.

We have comprehensive property and liability insurance policies for our properties with coverage features and insured limits that we believe are customary in their breadth and scope. However, in the event of a substantial loss, the insurance coverage we carry may not be sufficient to pay the full market value or replacement cost of our lost investment or could result in certain losses being totally uninsured. As a result, we could lose some or all of the capital we have invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property, and we could remain obligated for debt or other financial obligations related to the property.

Market forces beyond our control may limit the scope of the insurance coverage we can obtain in the future or our ability to obtain coverage at reasonable rates. Certain catastrophic losses may be uninsurable or too expensive to justify obtaining insurance. As a result, if we suffer such a catastrophic loss, we may not be successful in obtaining future insurance without increases in cost or decreases in coverage levels. Furthermore, our debt instruments and other material agreements require us to maintain a certain minimum level of insurance. Failure to satisfy these requirements could result in an event of default under these debt instruments or material agreements, which would negatively affect our business and financial condition.

We are subject to taxation by various governments and agencies. The rate of taxation could change.

We are subject to tax by various governments and agencies, both in the U.S. and in Macau. Changes in the rates of taxation, the amount of taxes we owe and the time when income is subject to taxation, our ability to claim U.S. foreign tax credits, failure to renew our Macau dividend agreement and Macau income tax exemption and the imposition of foreign withholding taxes could increase our overall rate of taxation.


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Because we own real property, we are subject to extensive environmental regulation, which creates uncertainty regarding future environmental expenditures and liabilities.

We have incurred costs to comply with environmental requirements, such as those relating to discharges into the air, water and land, the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous waste and the cleanup of properties affected by hazardous substances. Under these and other environmental requirements we may be required to investigate and clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at our property. As an owner or operator, we could also be held responsible to a governmental entity or third parties for property damage, personal injury and investigation and cleanup costs incurred by them in connection with any contamination.

These laws typically impose cleanup responsibility and liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of or caused the presence of the contaminants. The liability under those laws has been interpreted to be joint and several unless the harm is divisible and there is a reasonable basis for allocation of the responsibility. The costs of investigation, remediation or removal of those substances may be substantial, and the presence of those substances, or the failure to remediate a property properly, may impair our ability to use our property.

Contamination has been identified at and in the vicinity of our site in Everett, Massachusetts. The ultimate cost of remediating contaminated sites is difficult to accurately predict and we could exceed our current estimates. While we believe that we have adequate resources to cover the costs of the cleanup, we may be required to conduct additional investigations and remediation with respect to this site.  As a result, we also could incur material costs in excess of our estimates as a result of additional cleanup obligations imposed or contamination identified in the future.  Our proposed expenditures related to environmental matters are not currently expected to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.  However, the environmental laws under which we operate are complicated and often increasingly more stringent, and may be applied retroactively.  Accordingly, we may be required to make additional expenditures to remain in, or to achieve compliance with, environmental laws in the future.

Risks Associated with our Macau Operations

We depend upon gaming promoters for a significant portion of our gaming revenue. If we are unable to maintain, or develop additional, successful relationships with reputable gaming promoters, our ability to maintain or grow our gaming revenues could be adversely affected.

We may lose the clientele of our gaming promoters, who generate a significant portion of our gaming revenue. There is intense competition among casino operators in Macau for services provided by gaming promoters, which we expect to intensify as additional casinos open in Macau. If we are unable to maintain, or develop additional, successful relationships with reputable gaming promoters, or lose a significant number of our gaming promoters to our competitors, our ability to maintain or grow our gaming revenues will be adversely affected and we will have to seek alternative ways of developing relationships with VIP customers. In addition, if our gaming promoters are unable to develop or maintain relationships with our VIP customers, our ability to maintain or grow our gaming revenues will be hampered.

The financial resources of our gaming promoters may be insufficient to allow them to continue doing business in Macau which could adversely affect our business and financial condition. Our gaming promoters may experience difficulty in attracting patrons.

Given present market conditions in Macau and certain economic and other factors occurring in the region, gaming promoters are encountering difficulties in attracting patrons to come to Macau. Further, gaming promoters are experiencing decreased liquidity, limiting their ability to grant credit to their patrons, resulting in decreased gaming volume in Macau and at Wynn Macau. Credit already extended by our gaming promoters to their patrons has become difficult for them to collect. The inability to attract sufficient patrons, grant credit and collect amounts due in a timely manner are negatively affecting our gaming promoters' operations, causing gaming promoters to wind up or liquidate their operations or resulting in some of our gaming promoters leaving Macau. Current and any future difficulties could adverse impact our results of operations.

Increased competition for the services of gaming promoters may require us to pay increased commission rates to gaming promoters.

Certain gaming promoters have significant leverage and bargaining strength in negotiating operational agreements with casino operators. This leverage could result in gaming promoters negotiating changes to our operational agreements, including

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higher commissions, or the loss of business to a competitor or the loss of certain relationships with gaming promoters. If we need to increase our commission rates or otherwise change our practices with respect to gaming promoters due to competitive forces, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

Failure by the gaming promoters with whom we work to comply with Macau gaming laws and high standards of probity and integrity might affect our reputation and ability to comply with the requirements of our concession, Macau gaming laws and other gaming licenses.

The reputations and probity of the gaming promoters with whom we work are important to our own reputation and to our ability to operate in compliance with our concession, Macau gaming laws and other gaming licenses. We conduct periodic reviews of the probity and compliance programs of our gaming promoters. However, we are not able to control our gaming promoters' compliance with these high standards of probity and integrity, and our gaming promoters may violate provisions in their contracts with us designed to ensure such compliance. In addition, if we enter into a new business relationship with a gaming promoter whose probity is in doubt, this may be considered by regulators or investors to reflect negatively on our own probity. If our gaming promoters are unable to maintain required standards of probity and integrity, we may face consequences from gaming regulators with authority over our operations. Furthermore, if any of our gaming promoters violate the Macau gaming laws while on our premises, the Macau government may, in its discretion, take enforcement action against us, the gaming promoter, or each concurrently, and we may be sanctioned and our reputation could be harmed.

Revenues from our Macau gaming operations will end if we cannot secure an extension of our concession in 2022 or if the Macau government exercises its redemption right in 2017.

Our concession agreement with the Macau government expires in June 2022. Unless our concession is extended, in June 2022, all of our gaming operations and related equipment in Macau will be automatically transferred to the Macau government without compensation to us and we will cease to generate any revenues from these operations. Beginning in June 2017, the Macau government may redeem the concession agreement by providing us at least one year's prior notice. In the event the Macau government exercises this redemption right, we are entitled to fair compensation or indemnity. The amount of such compensation or indemnity will be determined based on the amount of revenue generated during the tax year prior to the redemption multiplied for the remaining years under the concession. We may not be able to renew or extend our concession agreement on terms favorable to us or at all and, if our concession is redeemed, the compensation paid to us may not be adequate to compensate us for the loss of future revenues. The redemption of or failure to extend our concession would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

If Wynn Macau fails to comply with the concession agreement, the Macau government can terminate our concession without compensation to us, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

The Macau government has the right to unilaterally terminate our concession in the event of our material non-compliance with the basic obligations under the concession and applicable Macau laws. The concession agreement expressly provides that the government of Macau may unilaterally rescind the concession agreement if Wynn Macau:
 
conducts unauthorized games or activities that are excluded from its corporate purpose;
suspends gaming operations in Macau for more than seven consecutive days (or more than 14 days in a civil year) without justification;
defaults in payment of taxes, premiums, contributions or other required amounts;
does not comply with government inspections or supervision;
systematically fails to observe its obligations under the concession system;
fails to maintain bank guarantees or bonds satisfactory to the government;
is the subject of bankruptcy proceedings or becomes insolvent;
engages in serious fraudulent activity, damaging to the public interest; or
repeatedly violates applicable gaming laws.

If the government of Macau unilaterally rescinds the concession agreement, Wynn Macau will be required to compensate the government in accordance with applicable law, and the areas defined as casino space under Macau law and all of the gaming equipment pertaining to our gaming operations will be transferred to the government without compensation. The loss of our concession would prohibit us from conducting gaming operations in Macau, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
 

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Our Macau subsidiaries' indebtedness is secured by a substantial portion of their assets.

Subject to applicable laws, including gaming laws, and certain agreed upon exceptions, our Macau subsidiaries' debt is secured by liens on substantially all of their assets. In the event of a default by such subsidiaries under their financing documents, or if such subsidiaries experience insolvency, liquidation, dissolution or reorganization, the holders of such secured debt would first be entitled to payment from their collateral security, and only then would holders of our Macau subsidiaries' unsecured debt be entitled to payment from their remaining assets.

We compete for limited labor resources in Macau and Macau government policies may also affect our ability to employ imported labor.

The success of our operations in Macau will be affected by our success in hiring and retaining employees. We compete with a large number of casino resorts in Macau for a limited number of qualified employees. In addition, the Macau government requires that we only hire Macau residents as dealers in our casinos. Competition for these individuals in Macau has increased and will continue to increase as we open Wynn Palace, and as other competitors expand their operations. We have to seek employees from other countries to adequately staff our resort and certain Macau government policies affect our ability to import labor in certain job classifications. Despite our coordination with the Macau labor and immigration authorities to assure that our labor needs are satisfied, we may not be able to recruit and retain a sufficient number of qualified employees for our operations or obtain required work permits for those employees. If we are unable to obtain, attract, retain and train skilled employees, our ability to adequately manage and staff our existing and planned casino and resort properties in Macau could be impaired, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

The Macau government has established a maximum number of gaming tables that may be operated in Macau and may limit the number of new gaming tables at new gaming areas in Macau, including our development project, Wynn Palace.

The Macau government has imposed a cap on gaming tables and restricts the number of gaming tables that may be operated in Macau. We may not be able to obtain Macau government's approval to operate a sufficient number of gaming tables at our development project, Wynn Palace. These restrictions may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

Wynn Macau may be affected by adverse political and economic conditions.

Our Macau Operations, including Wynn Palace, are subject to significant political, economic and social risks inherent in doing business in an emerging market. Macau's legislative, regulatory, legal, economic and cultural institutions are in a period of transition. The continued success of our Macau Operations and the future success of Wynn Palace will depend on political and economic conditions in Macau and mainland China. For example, fiscal decline and civil, domestic or international unrest in Macau, China or the surrounding region could significantly harm our business, not only by reducing customer demand for casino resorts, but also by increasing the risk of imposition of taxes and exchange controls or other governmental restrictions, laws or regulations that might impede Wynn Macau's operations or ability to repatriate funds.

We are currently required to complete Wynn Palace by May 2017. If we are unable to meet this deadline, we may lose the respective land concession, which could prohibit us from operating any facilities developed under such land concession.

The Company has capitalized approximately $3.4 billion, including the land premium (net of amortization) and $199.9 million in outstanding construction payables and construction retention, as of December 31, 2015.  Under the Company's land concession for Wynn Palace, the Company is required to complete the development by May 2017.  Should the Company determine that it is unable to complete Wynn Palace by this deadline, the Company would expect to apply for an extension from the Macau government.  If the Company is unable to meet the current deadline and the deadline for the development is not extended, the Company could lose its land concession for Wynn Palace, which would prohibit the Company from operating any facilities developed under the land concession.  As a result, the Company could record a charge for all or some portion of its capitalized construction costs and land premiums (net of amortization). The Company expects to open Wynn Palace in the first half of 2016; however, potential construction delays could push the opening date into the second half of 2016.

Macau may not have an adequate transportation infrastructure to accommodate the demand from future development.

Because of additional casino projects which are under construction and to be developed in the future, the ferry and helicopter services which provide transportation between Macau and Hong Kong may need to be expanded to accommodate the increased visitation of Macau. If transportation facilities to and from Macau are inadequate to meet the demands of an increased

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volume of gaming customers visiting Macau, the desirability of Macau as a gaming destination, as well as the results of operations of Wynn Macau, could be negatively impacted.

The smoking control legislation in Macau could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

In 2014, the Macau government approved smoking control legislation, which prohibits smoking in casinos starting on October 6, 2014. The legislation, however, permits casinos to maintain certain limited smoking areas open to VIP patrons if such areas are within restricted access areas, comply with certain square footage ratios based on overall gaming area square footage and comply with the conditions set out in the Dispatch of the Chief Executive, dated November 1, 2012, as amended by the Dispatch of the Chief Executive, dated June 3, 2014. Public announcements by the Macau government indicate that the Macau government intends to pursue a full smoking ban within all Macau casinos. The existing smoking legislation, and any smoking legislation intended to fully ban all smoking in casinos, may deter potential gaming customers who are smokers from frequenting casinos in Macau and disrupt the number of patrons visiting or the amount of time visiting patrons spend at our property, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Extreme weather conditions may have an adverse impact on Wynn Macau.

Macau's subtropical climate and location on the South China Sea are subject to extreme weather conditions including typhoons and heavy rainstorms. Unfavorable weather conditions could negatively affect the profitability of our resort complex and prevent or discourage guests from traveling to Macau.

Conflicts of interest may arise because certain of our directors and officers are also directors of Wynn Macau, Limited.

In October 2009, Wynn Macau, Limited, an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Wynn Resorts and the developer, owner and operator of Wynn Macau, listed its ordinary shares of common stock on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited. As of December 31, 2015, Wynn Resorts owns approximately 72% of Wynn Macau's ordinary shares of common stock. As a result of Wynn Macau, Limited having stockholders who are not affiliated with us, we and certain of our officers and directors who also serve as officers and/or directors of Wynn Macau, Limited may have conflicting fiduciary obligations to our stockholders and to the minority stockholders of Wynn Macau, Limited. Decisions that could have different implications for Wynn Resorts and Wynn Macau, Limited, including contractual arrangements that we have entered into or may in the future enter into with Wynn Macau, Limited, may give rise to the appearance of a potential conflict of interest.

Certain Nevada gaming laws apply to Wynn Macau's gaming activities and associations.

Certain Nevada gaming laws also apply to gaming activities and associations in jurisdictions outside the State of Nevada. With respect to our Wynn Macau operations, we and our subsidiaries that must be licensed to conduct gaming operations in Nevada are required to comply with certain reporting requirements concerning gaming activities and associations in Macau conducted by our Macau-related subsidiaries. We and our licensed Nevada subsidiaries also will be subject to disciplinary action by the Nevada Gaming Commission if our Macau-related subsidiaries:

knowingly violate any Macau laws relating to their Macau gaming operations;
fail to conduct Wynn Macau's operations in accordance with the standards of honesty and integrity required of Nevada gaming operations;
engage in any activity or enter into any association that is unsuitable for us because it poses an unreasonable threat to the control of gaming in Nevada, reflects or tends to reflect discredit or disrepute upon the State of Nevada or gaming in Nevada, or is contrary to Nevada gaming policies;
engage in any activity or enter into any association that interferes with the ability of the State of Nevada to collect gaming taxes and fees; or
employ, contract with or associate with any person in the foreign gaming operation who has been denied a license or a finding of suitability in Nevada on the ground of unsuitability, or who has been found guilty of cheating at gambling.

Such disciplinary action could include suspension, conditioning, limitation or revocation of the registration, licenses or approvals held by us and our licensed Nevada subsidiaries, including Wynn Las Vegas, LLC, and the imposition of substantial fines.


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In addition, if the Nevada Gaming Control Board determines that any actual or intended activities or associations of our Macau-related subsidiaries may be prohibited pursuant to one or more of the standards described above, the Nevada Gaming Control Board can require us and our licensed Nevada subsidiaries to file an application with the Nevada Gaming Commission for a finding of suitability of the activity or association. If the Nevada Gaming Commission finds that the activity or association in Macau is unsuitable or prohibited, our Macau-related subsidiaries will either be required to terminate the activity or association, or will be prohibited from undertaking the activity or association. Consequently, should the Nevada Gaming Commission find that our Macau-related subsidiary's gaming activities or associations in Macau are unsuitable, those subsidiaries may be prohibited from undertaking their planned gaming activities or associations in Macau, or be required to divest their investment in Macau, possibly on unfavorable terms.

Unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates may increase Wynn Macau's obligations under the concession agreement and cause fluctuations in the value of our investment in Macau.

The currency delineated in Wynn Macau's concession agreement with the government of Macau is the Macau pataca. The Macau pataca, which is not a freely convertible currency, is linked to the Hong Kong dollar, and the two are often used interchangeably in Macau. The Hong Kong dollar is linked to the U.S. dollar and the exchange rate between these two currencies has remained relatively stable over the past several years. However, the exchange linkages of the Hong Kong dollar and the Macau pataca, and the Hong Kong dollar and the U.S. dollar, are subject to potential changes due to changes in Chinese governmental policies and international economic and political developments.

If the Hong Kong dollar and the Macau pataca are no longer linked to the U.S. dollar, the exchange rate for these currencies may severely fluctuate. The current rate of exchange fixed by the applicable monetary authorities for these currencies may also change.

Because many of Wynn Macau's payment and expenditure obligations are in Macau patacas, in the event of unfavorable Macau pataca or Hong Kong dollar rate changes, Wynn Macau's obligations, as denominated in U.S. dollars, would increase. In addition, because we expect that most of the revenues for any casino that we operate in Macau will be in Hong Kong dollars, we are subject to foreign exchange risk with respect to the exchange rate between the Hong Kong dollar and the U.S. dollar. Also, if any of our Macau-related entities incur U.S. dollar-denominated debt, fluctuations in the exchange rates of the Macau pataca or the Hong Kong dollar, in relation to the U.S. dollar, could have adverse effects on our results of operations, financial condition and ability to service its debt.

Currency exchange controls and currency export restrictions could negatively impact Wynn Macau.

Currency exchange controls and restrictions on the export of currency by certain countries may negatively impact the success of Wynn Macau. For example, there are currently existing currency exchange controls and restrictions on the export of the renminbi, the currency of China. Restrictions on the export of the renminbi may impede the flow of gaming customers from China to Macau, inhibit the growth of gaming in Macau and negatively impact Wynn Macau's gaming operations.

Risks Related to Share Ownership and Stockholder Matters

Our largest stockholders are able to exert significant influence over our operations and future direction.

As of December 31, 2015, Mr. Wynn and Elaine P. Wynn own 11,070,000 shares and 9,539,077 shares, respectively, or in the aggregate approximately 20.3%, of our outstanding common stock. As a result, Mr. Wynn and Elaine P. Wynn, to the extent they vote their shares in a similar manner, may be able to exert significant influence over all matters requiring our stockholders' approval, including the approval of significant corporate transactions.

Under the Stockholders Agreement, Mr. Wynn and Elaine P. Wynn have agreed to vote the shares of the Company's common stock held by them subject to the terms of the Stockholders Agreement in a manner so as to elect to our Board of Directors each of the nominees contained on each and every slate of directors endorsed by Mr. Wynn. As a result of this voting arrangement, Mr. Wynn, as a practical matter, exercises significant influence over the slate of directors to be elected to our Board of Directors. In addition, with stated exceptions, the Stockholders Agreement requires the written consent of the other party prior to any party selling any shares of the Company's common stock that it owns.

In June 2012, in connection with the pending litigation between the Company and Aruze, Elaine P. Wynn submitted a cross claim against Mr. Wynn and Mr. Okada seeking to void the Stockholders Agreement, which, if successful, could result in,

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a change in control under the Wynn Las Vegas, LLC debt documents. For additional information on the cross claim, see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies."

In November 2006, the Board of Directors of Wynn Resorts approved an amendment of its bylaws that exempts future acquisitions of shares of Wynn Resorts' common stock by either Mr. Wynn or Aruze from Nevada's acquisition of controlling interest statutes. In light of the determination by the Board of Directors on February 18, 2012 that each of the Okada Parties is an "Unsuitable Person" under the Company's articles of incorporation and the redemption and cancellation of Aruze's shares of Company common stock, our Fifth Amended and Restated Bylaws amended these provisions to delete the reference to Aruze and its affiliates. The Nevada acquisition of controlling interest statutes require stockholder approval in order to exercise voting rights in connection with any acquisition of a controlling interest in certain Nevada corporations unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws of the corporation in effect on the 10th day following the acquisition of a controlling interest by certain acquiring persons provide that these statutes do not apply to the corporation or to the acquisition specifically by types of existing or future stockholders. These statutes define a "controlling interest" as (i) one-fifth or more but less than one third, (ii) one-third or more but less than a majority, or (iii) a majority or more, of the voting power in the election of directors. As a result of these bylaws provisions, Mr. Wynn or his affiliates may acquire ownership of outstanding voting shares of Wynn Resorts permitting him or them to exercise more than one-third but less than a majority, or a majority or more, of all of the voting power of the Company in the election of directors, without requiring a resolution of the Company's stockholders granting voting rights in the control shares acquired.

Our stock price may be volatile.

The trading price of our common stock has been and may continue to be subject to wide fluctuations. Our stock price may fluctuate in response to a number of events and factors, such as general United States, China, and world economic and financial conditions, our own quarterly variations in operating results, increased competition, changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts, changes in applicable laws or regulations, and changes affecting the travel industry. The stock market in general, and prices for companies in our industry in particular, has experienced extreme volatility that may be unrelated to the operating performance of a particular company. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance.

Risks Related to our Indebtedness

We are highly leveraged and future cash flow may not be sufficient for us to meet our obligations, and we might have difficulty obtaining more financing.

We have a substantial amount of consolidated debt in relation to our equity. As of December 31, 2015, we had total outstanding debt of approximately $9.2 billion, which includes a portion of the funds we expect to need for the development and construction of our projects, Wynn Palace and the Wynn resort in Massachusetts. We may, however, incur additional indebtedness in connection with the construction of these projects. See Item 1—"Business," "Construction and Development Opportunities". In addition, we are permitted to incur additional indebtedness if certain conditions are met, including conditions under our Wynn Macau credit facilities, our Wynn America credit facilities and our Wynn Las Vegas, LLC indentures in connection with other future potential development plans. On February 18, 2012, we issued a Redemption Note with a principal amount of approximately $1.94 billion in redemption of all of the shares of Wynn Resorts common stock held by Aruze. As of December 31, 2015, the fair value of the Redemption Note was $1.88 billion. For additional information on the redemption and the Redemption Note, see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies".

Our indebtedness could have important consequences. For example:
 
failure to meet our payment obligations or other obligations could result in acceleration of our indebtedness, foreclosure upon our assets that serve as collateral or bankruptcy and trigger cross defaults under other agreements;
servicing our indebtedness requires a substantial portion of our cash flow from the operations of Wynn Las Vegas and Wynn Macau and reduces the amount of available cash, if any, to fund working capital and other cash requirements;
The Okada Parties have challenged the redemption of Aruze's shares and we are currently involved in litigation with those parties as well as related shareholder derivative litigation. The outcome of these various proceedings cannot be predicted. Any adverse judgments or settlements involving payment of a material sum of money could cause a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and could expose us to additional claims by third parties including current or former investors or regulators. Any

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adverse judgments or settlements would reduce our profits and could limit our ability to operate our business. See Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies";
we may experience decreased revenues from our operations due to decreased consumer spending levels and high unemployment, and could fail to generate sufficient cash to fund our liquidity needs and/or fail to satisfy the financial and other restrictive covenants to which we are subject under our existing indebtedness. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations to pay our indebtedness or to fund our other liquidity needs;
we may not be able to obtain additional financing, if needed, to satisfy working capital requirements or pay for other capital expenditures, debt service or other obligations; and
rates with respect to a portion of the interest we pay will fluctuate with market rates and, accordingly, our interest expense will increase if market interest rates increase.

Under the terms of the documents governing our debt facilities, subject to certain limitations, we are permitted to incur indebtedness. If we incur additional indebtedness, the risks described above will be exacerbated.

The agreements governing our debt facilities contain certain covenants that restrict our ability to engage in certain transactions and may impair our ability to respond to changing business and economic conditions.

Some of our debt facilities require us to satisfy various financial covenants, which include requirements for minimum interest coverage ratios and leverage ratios pertaining to total debt to earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization and a minimum earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization. For more information on financial covenants we are subject to under our debt facilities, see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 8 "Long-Term Debt." Future indebtedness or other contracts could contain covenants more restrictive than those contained in our existing debt facilities.

The agreements governing our debt facilities also contain restrictions on our ability to engage in certain transactions and may limit our ability to respond to changing business and economic conditions. These restrictions include, among other things, limitations on our ability and the ability of our restricted subsidiaries to:

pay dividends or distributions or repurchase equity;
incur additional debt;
make investments;
create liens on assets to secure debt;
enter into transactions with affiliates;
issue stock of, or member's interests in, subsidiaries;
enter into sale-leaseback transactions;
engage in other businesses;
merge or consolidate with another company;
undergo a change of control;
transfer, sell or otherwise dispose of assets;
issue disqualified stock;
create dividend and other payment restrictions affecting subsidiaries; and
designate restricted and unrestricted subsidiaries.

Our ability to comply with the terms of our outstanding facilities may be affected by general economic conditions, industry conditions and other events outside of our control. As a result, we may not be able to maintain compliance with these covenants. If our properties' operations fail to generate adequate cash flow, we may violate those covenants, causing a default under our agreements, which would materially and adversely affect our operating results and our financial condition or result in our lenders or holders of our debt taking action to enforce their security interests in our various assets or cause all outstanding amounts to be due and payable immediately.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.


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Item 2. Properties

Macau Land Concessions

The government of Macau owns most of the land in Macau. In most cases, private interests in real property located in Macau are obtained through long-term leases known as concessions and other grants of rights to use land from the government. In July 2004, our subsidiary, Wynn Macau SA, entered into a land concession contract under which Wynn Macau SA leases from the Macau government an approximately 16-acre parcel of land in downtown Macau's inner harbor area where Wynn Macau is located. The term of the land concession contract is 25 years from August 2004, and it may be renewed with government approval for successive periods. Wynn Macau SA paid a land concession premium of approximately 319.4 million Macau patacas (approximately $40.0 million) for this land concession. In 2009, the Company and the Macau government agreed to modify this land concession as a result of the expansion of Wynn Macau with Encore at Wynn Macau and the additional square footage that was added as a result of such expansion. In November 2009, the Company made an additional one-time land premium payment of approximately 113.4 million Macau patacas (approximately $14.2 million). Annual rent of approximately 4.2 million Macau patacas (approximately $525,000) is being paid in accordance with the land concession contract.

In September 2011, Palo and Wynn Macau SA, each an indirect subsidiary of Wynn Macau Limited, formally accepted the terms and conditions of a draft land concession contract from the Macau government for approximately 51 acres of land in the Cotai area of Macau. On May 2, 2012, the land concession contract was gazetted by the government of Macau evidencing the final step in the granting of the land concession. We are currently constructing Wynn Palace, an integrated resort featuring a 1,700-room hotel, a performance lake, and a wide range of amenities, including meeting, retail, food and beverage, and gaming space, in the Cotai area of Macau. The total project budget, including construction costs, capitalized interest, pre-opening expenses, land costs and financing fees, is $4.1 billion. As of December 31, 2015, we have invested approximately $3.5 billion in the project. We expect to open Wynn Palace in the first half of 2016; however, potential construction delays could push the opening date into the second half of 2016.

Las Vegas Land

We own approximately 238 acres of land on or near the Las Vegas Strip consisting of approximately 75 acres at the northeast corner of the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and Sands Avenue, on which Wynn Las Vegas is located, the approximately 140-acre golf course behind Wynn Las Vegas, approximately five acres adjacent to the golf course on which an office building is located, and approximately 18 acres located across from the Wynn Las Vegas site at Koval Lane and Sands Avenue, a portion of which is improved with an employee parking garage and an office building.

Las Vegas Water Rights

We own approximately 834 acre-feet of permitted and certificated water rights, which we currently use to irrigate the golf course. We also own approximately 151.5 acre-feet of permitted and certificated water rights for commercial use. There are significant cost savings and conservation benefits associated with using water supplied pursuant to our water rights. We anticipate using our water rights to support future development of the golf course land.

Massachusetts Land

We own approximately 33 acres of land in Everett, Massachusetts, along the Mystic River. This land is the primary site for an integrated resort where we have begun site remediation, site preparation, and pre-construction activities. The resort will contain a hotel, a waterfront boardwalk, meeting space, a casino, a spa, retail offerings and food and beverage outlets.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

We are occasionally party to lawsuits. As with all litigation, no assurance can be provided as to the outcome of such matters and we note that litigation inherently involves significant costs. Please see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies—Litigation" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference. For additional information, please see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" as well as Item 1A—"Risk Factors" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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CCAC Information Request

In July 2014, Wynn Macau SA was contacted by the Macau Commission Against Corruption of Macau ("CCAC") requesting certain information related to its land in the Cotai area of Macau. Wynn Macau SA is cooperating with CCAC's request.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not Applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common stock trades on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol "WYNN." The following table sets forth the high and low sale prices for the indicated periods, as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market.
 
High
 
Low
Year Ended December 31, 2015
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
160.41

 
$
121.53

Second Quarter
$
136.93

 
$
93.59

Third Quarter
$
112.00

 
$
52.26

Fourth Quarter
$
77.25

 
$
50.96

Year Ended December 31, 2014
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
249.31

 
$
189.03

Second Quarter
$
231.00

 
$
188.43

Third Quarter
$
220.50

 
$
172.53

Fourth Quarter
$
192.45

 
$
133.58


Holders

There were approximately 190 holders of record of our common stock as of February 12, 2016.

Dividends

Wynn Resorts is a holding company and, as a result, our ability to pay dividends is dependent on our ability to obtain funds and our subsidiaries' ability to provide funds to us. Restrictions imposed by our subsidiaries' debt instruments significantly restrict certain key subsidiaries, including Wynn Las Vegas, LLC, Wynn America, LLC and Wynn Macau SA, from making dividends or distributions to Wynn Resorts. These restrictions are subject to certain exceptions for affiliated overhead expenses as defined in the agreements governing the debt instruments, unless certain financial and non-financial criteria have been satisfied.

In February 2015, we paid a cash dividend of $1.50 per share. In each of May 2015, August 2015, and November 2015, we paid a cash dividend of $0.50 per share. In November 2014, we paid a cash dividend of $2.50 per share. In each of February 2014, May 2014, and August 2014, we paid a cash dividend of $1.25 per share.

On February 11, 2016, the Company announced a cash dividend of $0.50 per share, payable on March 2, 2016 to stockholders of record as of February 23, 2016.

Our Board of Directors will continue to periodically assess the level and appropriateness of any cash dividends.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

In November 2015, we repurchased 4,103 shares in satisfaction of tax withholding obligations on vested restricted stock at an average price of $69.95 per share, for a total expenditure of $0.3 million.


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Stock Performance Graph

The graph below compares the five year cumulative total return on our common stock to the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor's 500 Stock Index ("S&P 500") and the Dow Jones US Gambling Index. The performance graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2010 in each of the Company's common stock, the S&P 500 and the Dow Jones US Gambling Index, and that all dividends were reinvested. The stock price performance shown in this graph is neither necessarily indicative of, nor intended to suggest, future stock price performance.


COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Wynn Resorts Ltd., the S&P 500 Index,
and the Dow Jones US Gambling Index

                    
*100 invested on 12/31/10 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends. Fiscal year ending December 31.
Copyright © 2016 S&P, a division of McGraw Hill Financial. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2016 Dow Jones & Co. All rights reserved.





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Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The following financial information for each of the five years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, and 2011 has been derived from our consolidated financial statements. This selected consolidated financial data should be read together with Item 7—"Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," our consolidated financial statements and related notes and other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Operating results for the periods presented are not indicative of the results that may be expected for future years.

 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012 (1)
 
2011
 
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Consolidated Statements of Income Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenues
$
4,075,883

 
$
5,433,661

 
$
5,620,936

 
$
5,154,284

 
$
5,269,792

Pre-opening costs
77,623

 
30,146

 
3,169

 
466

 

Operating income
658,814

 
1,266,278

 
1,290,091

 
1,029,276

 
1,008,240

Net income
281,524

 
962,644

 
1,004,157

 
728,699

 
825,113

Less: net income attributable to noncontrolling interest
(86,234
)
 
(231,090
)
 
(275,505
)
 
(226,663
)
 
(211,742
)
Net income attributable to Wynn Resorts, Limited
195,290

 
731,554

 
728,652

 
502,036

 
613,371

Basic income per share
$
1.93

 
$
7.25

 
$
7.25

 
$
4.87

 
$
4.94

Diluted income per share
$
1.92

 
$
7.18

 
$
7.17

 
$
4.82

 
$
4.88

 
As of December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012 (1)
 
2011
 
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
2,080,089

 
$
2,182,164

 
$
2,435,041

 
$
1,725,219

 
$
1,262,587

Construction in progress
3,217,117

 
1,666,326

 
558,624

 
110,490

 
28,477

Total assets
10,522,259

 
9,062,861

 
8,377,030

 
7,276,594

 
6,899,496

Total long-term obligations (2)
9,390,243

 
7,543,452

 
6,789,145

 
6,041,285

 
3,096,149

Stockholders’ equity
21,845

 
211,091

 
132,351

 
103,932

 
2,223,454

Cash distributions declared per common share
$
3.00

 
$
6.25

 
$
7.00

 
$
9.50

 
$
6.50


(1)
On February 18, 2012, we redeemed and canceled Aruze's 24,549,222 shares of Wynn Resorts common stock. In connection with the redemption and cancellation, stockholders' equity was reduced by $1.94 billion, the face amount of the Redemption Note. Aruze has challenged the redemption and cancellation of the 24,549,222 shares and legal proceedings are ongoing. Please see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies."

(2)
Includes long-term debt, long-term portion of the contract premium payments under our land concession contract at Wynn Macau, other long-term liabilities and deferred income taxes, net.

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by, the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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Overview

We are a developer, owner and operator of destination casino resorts (integrated resorts). In Macau, we own 72% of Wynn Macau, Limited and operate Wynn Macau and Encore at Wynn Macau. We refer to the integrated Wynn Macau and Encore at Wynn Macau resort as Wynn Macau | Encore or as our Macau Operations. In Las Vegas, Nevada, we own 100% of and operate Wynn Las Vegas and Encore at Wynn Las Vegas, which we refer to as Wynn Las Vegas | Encore or our Las Vegas Operations. We are currently constructing Wynn Palace, an integrated casino resort in the Cotai area of Macau. In addition, we are developing an integrated casino resort in Everett, Massachusetts.

Macau Operations

Our integrated Macau resort of Wynn Macau and Encore at Wynn Macau features approximately 284,000 square feet of casino space with 458 table games and 708 slot machines and two luxury hotel towers with a total of 1,008 guest rooms and suites. Wynn Macau | Encore includes casual and fine dining in eight restaurants, approximately 57,000 square feet of retail space, approximately 31,000 square feet of lounge and meeting facilities and recreation and leisure facilities.

In response to our evaluation of our Macau Operations and our commitment to creating a unique customer experience, we have made and expect to continue to make enhancements and refinements to this resort. In February 2015, we completed the renovation of approximately 27,000 square feet of our casino space at Wynn Macau for new VIP gaming rooms.

Las Vegas Operations

Our integrated Las Vegas resort of Wynn Las Vegas and Encore at Wynn Las Vegas features approximately 186,000 square feet of casino space with 232 table games, 1,866 slot machines and two luxury hotel towers with a total of 4,748 guest rooms, suites and villas. Wynn Las Vegas | Encore includes 34 food and beverage outlets, approximately 99,000 square feet of retail space, approximately 290,000 square feet of meeting and convention space, an on-site 18 hole golf course, as well as two showrooms, three nightclubs and a beach club.

In response to our evaluation of our Las Vegas Operations and our commitment to creating a unique customer experience, we have made and expect to continue to make enhancements and refinements to this resort. In October 2015, we closed the Ferrari and Maserati automobile dealership inside Wynn Las Vegas. We have obtained relevant approvals to transform the dealership and adjacent space into additional retail space. In November 2015, we completed the remodel of all guest rooms in our Encore hotel tower, completed the remodel of one of our restaurants and began the re-branding of one of our night clubs, which is scheduled for completion in April 2016.  In December 2015, we opened a 5,000 square-foot luxury lounge for gaming and entertainment in Encore.     

Future Development

We are currently constructing Wynn Palace, an integrated resort containing a 1,700-room hotel, performance lake, and a wide range of amenities, including meeting, retail, food and beverage, and gaming space, in the Cotai area of Macau. In July 2013, we signed a $2.7 billion GMP contract for the project's construction. The total project budget, including construction costs, capitalized interest, pre-opening expenses, land costs and financing fees, is approximately $4.1 billion. As of December 31, 2015, we have invested approximately $3.5 billion in the project. We expect to open Wynn Palace in the first half of 2016; however, potential construction delays could push the opening date into the second half of 2016.

In November 2014, the Company was awarded a gaming license to develop and construct an integrated resort in Everett, Massachusetts, adjacent to Boston. The resort will be located on a 33-acre site along the Mystic River. The resort will contain a hotel, a waterfront boardwalk, meeting space, a casino, a spa, retail offerings and food and beverage outlets. We have begun site remediation, site preparation and pre-construction activities.

We continually seek out new opportunities for additional gaming or related businesses, in the United States, and worldwide.

Key Operating Measures

Certain key operating measures specific to the gaming industry are included in our discussion of our operational performance for the periods for which a Consolidated Statement of Income is presented. Below are definitions of these key operating measures discussed:


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Table drop for our Macau Operations is the amount of cash that is deposited in a gaming table's drop box plus cash chips purchased at the casino cage.
Table drop for our Las Vegas Operations is the amount of cash and net markers issued that are deposited in a gaming table's drop box.
Turnover is the sum of all losing rolling chip wagers within our Macau Operations' VIP program.
Table games win is the amount of table drop or turnover that is retained and recorded as casino revenue.
Rolling chips are identifiable chips that are used to track turnover for purposes of calculating incentives.
Slot win is the amount of handle (representing the total amount wagered) that is retained by us and is recorded as casino revenue.
Average daily rate ("ADR") is calculated by dividing total room revenues including the retail value of promotional allowances (less service charges, if any) by total rooms occupied including complimentary rooms.
Revenue per available room ("REVPAR") is calculated by dividing total room revenues including the retail value of promotional allowances (less service charges, if any) by total rooms available.
Occupancy is calculated by dividing total occupied rooms, including complimentary rooms, by the total rooms available.

Below is a discussion of the methodologies used to calculate win percentage at our resorts.

In our VIP casino in Macau, customers primarily purchase non-negotiable chips, commonly referred to as rolling chips, from the casino cage and there is no deposit into a gaming table drop box from chips purchased from the cage. Non-negotiable chips can only be used to make wagers. Winning wagers are paid in cash chips. The loss of the non-negotiable chips in the VIP casino is recorded as turnover and provides a base for calculating VIP casino win percentage. It is customary in Macau to measure VIP casino play using this rolling chip method. We expect our win as a percentage of turnover in this segment to be within the range of 2.7% to 3.0%.

In our mass market casino in Macau, customers may purchase cash chips at either the gaming tables or at the casino cage. Commencing in the second quarter of 2015, the sum of these purchases is the base of measurement used for calculating win percentage in our mass market casino in accordance with standard Macau industry practice. All prior period amounts have been adjusted to conform to this new measurement.

The measurements in our VIP casino and the mass market casino are not comparable as the mass market casino tracks the initial purchase of chips at the table while the measurement method in our VIP casino tracks the sum of all losing wagers. Accordingly, the base measurement in the VIP casino is much larger than the base measurement in the mass market casino. As a result, the expected win percentage with the same amount of gaming win is smaller in the VIP casino when compared to the mass market casino.

In Las Vegas, customers purchase chips at the gaming tables. The cash and net markers used to purchase chips are deposited in the gaming table's drop box. This is the base of measurement that we use for calculating win percentage in Las Vegas. Each type of table game has its own theoretical win percentage. Our expected table games win percentage in Las Vegas is 21% to 25%.

Results of Operations

Summary annual results

The following table summarizes our financial results for the periods presented (in thousands, except per share data).
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Net revenues
$
4,075,883

 
$
5,433,661

 
$
5,620,936

Net income attributable to Wynn Resorts, Limited
$
195,290

 
$
731,554

 
$
728,652

Diluted net income per share
$
1.92

 
$
7.18

 
$
7.17

Adjusted Property EBITDA
$
1,185,789

 
$
1,773,278

 
$
1,810,801


During the year ended December 31, 2015, our net income attributable to Wynn Resorts, Limited was $195.3 million, a decrease of 73.3% over the same period of 2014, resulting in diluted earnings per share of $1.92. Adjusted Property EBITDA decreased year-over-year by 33.1%, from $1,773.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 to $1,185.8 million for the

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same period of 2015. Our results reflect continued weak performance from our Macau Operations, with a reduction in VIP turnover of 46.4% for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to the same period of 2014. The VIP turnover reduction is a result of the current economic and political conditions in Macau and China as well as the effect of regional economic factors on gaming promoters and our premium customers.  We continue to experience a significant slowdown in activity from our premium customers with a reduction in overall visitation at our Macau Operations.

During the year ended December 31, 2014, our net income attributable to Wynn Resorts, Limited was $731.6 million, relatively flat compared to the same period of 2013, resulting in diluted earnings per share of $7.18. Adjusted Property EBITDA decreased year-over-year by 2.1%, from $1,810.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 to $1,773.3 million for the same period of 2014. Our results for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to the same period of 2013 were primarily attributable to a 5.8% decline in casino revenues from our Macau Operations offset by non-casino revenue growth from our Las Vegas Operations. Although we experienced stable overall visitation to our Macau Operations during 2014, a significant slowdown in activity from our premium customers drove the decline in casino revenues.

Financial results for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to the year ended December 31, 2014.

Net revenues

The following table presents net revenues from our Macau and Las Vegas Operations (in thousands): 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
Percent
Change
Net revenues
 
 
 
 
 
Macau Operations
$
2,463,092

 
$
3,796,750

 
(35.1
)
Las Vegas Operations
1,612,791

 
1,636,911

 
(1.5
)
 
$
4,075,883

 
$
5,433,661

 
(25.0
)
 
Net revenues decreased 25.0% to $4,075.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $5,433.7 million for the same period in 2014. The decline is primarily due to a decrease of 35.5%, or $1,273.9 million, in casino revenues from our Macau Operations.

Non-casino revenues consist of operating revenues from rooms, food and beverage, entertainment, retail and other, less promotional allowances. The following table presents net revenues from our casino revenues and non-casino revenues (in thousands).
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
Percent
Change
Net revenues
 
 
 
 
 
Casino revenues
$
2,932,419

 
$
4,274,221

 
(31.4
)
Non-casino revenues
1,143,464

 
1,159,440

 
(1.4
)
 
$
4,075,883

 
$
5,433,661

 
(25.0
)

Casino revenues were 71.9% of total net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to 78.7% of total net revenues for the same period of 2014, while non-casino revenues were 28.1% of total net revenues, compared to 21.3% in the prior year. This increase in non-casino revenues as a percentage of total net revenues reflects performance of non-gaming amenities, such as Las Vegas nightclubs and continued high occupancy and use of our facilities, in contrast to the decline in VIP gaming revenue in Macau.


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Casino revenues

Casino revenues decreased 31.4% to $2,932.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $4,274.2 million in the same period of 2014. The decline is primarily due to the continued weak gaming environment affecting our Macau Operations, which experienced a year-over-year decrease in casino revenues of 35.5% from $3,586.8 million to $2,312.9 million. Our VIP gaming operations drove the Macau Operations casino revenue reduction, with $57.92 billion in VIP turnover for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $108.08 billion for the same period of 2014. In addition, our mass market gaming operations contributed to the decline in casino revenues from our Macau Operations with a 12.0% decrease in table drop combined with a reduction in table games win percentage of 1.9 percentage points. Our VIP tables decreased from 248 at December 31, 2014 to 190 at December 31, 2015 based on current operating environment and customer demand.
 
The table below sets forth our casino revenues and associated key operating measures for our Macau and Las Vegas Operations (dollars in thousands, except for win per unit per day).  
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
Increase/
(Decrease)
 
Percent
Change
Macau Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total casino revenues
$
2,312,925

 
$
3,586,781

 
$
(1,273,856
)
 
(35.5
)
Average number of table games
458

 
461

 
(3
)
 
(0.7
)
VIP
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average number of table games
230

 
259

 
(29
)
 
(11.2
)
VIP turnover
$
57,917,060

 
$
108,077,342

 
$
(50,160,282
)
 
(46.4
)
Table games win
$
1,659,683

 
$
3,051,046

 
$
(1,391,363
)
 
(45.6
)
VIP win as a % of turnover
2.87
%
 
2.82
%
 
0.05

 
 
Table games win per unit per day
$
19,785

 
$
32,258

 
$
(12,473
)
 
(37.2
)
Mass market
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average number of table games
228

 
202

 
26

 
12.9

Table drop
$
4,857,804

 
$
5,517,382

 
$
(659,578
)
 
(12.0
)
Table games win
$
951,458

 
$
1,187,997

 
$
(236,539
)
 
(19.9
)
Table games win %
19.6
%
 
21.5
%
 
(1.9
)
 
 
Table games win per unit per day
$
11,431

 
$
16,154

 
$
(4,723
)
 
(29.2
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average number of slot machines
708

 
679

 
29

 
4.3

Slot machine handle
$
3,961,115

 
$
5,415,127

 
$
(1,454,012
)
 
(26.9
)
Slot machine win
$
191,164

 
$
264,763

 
$
(73,599
)
 
(27.8
)
Slot machine win per unit per day
$
740

 
$
1,068

 
$
(328
)
 
(30.7
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Las Vegas Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total casino revenues
$
619,494

 
$
687,440

 
$
(67,946
)
 
(9.9
)
Average number of table games
232

 
232

 

 

Table drop
$
2,060,189

 
$
2,556,452

 
$
(496,263
)
 
(19.4
)
Table games win
$
490,920

 
$
623,968

 
$
(133,048
)
 
(21.3
)
Table games win %
23.8
%
 
24.4
%
 
(0.6
)
 
 
Table games win per unit per day
$
5,786

 
$
7,354

 
$
(1,568
)
 
(21.3
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average number of slot machines
1,866

 
1,858

 
8

 
0.4

Slot machine handle
$
2,969,327

 
$
3,008,563

 
$
(39,236
)
 
(1.3
)
Slot machine win
$
206,626

 
$
186,458

 
$
20,168

 
10.8

Slot machine win per unit per day
$
303

 
$
275

 
$
28

 
10.2

 

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Non-casino revenues

Non-casino revenues decreased 1.4%, or $16.0 million, to $1,143.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $1,159.4 million for the same period of 2014.

Room revenues decreased $4.3 million to $538.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $542.8 million in the same period of 2014, driven by a decline from our Macau Operations of $8.4 million, partially offset by an increase from our Las Vegas Operations of $4.2 million.

The table below sets forth our room revenues and associated key operating measures for our Macau and Las Vegas Operations. 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
Percent
Change (a)
Macau Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
Total room revenues (in thousands)
$
125,348

 
$
133,781

 
(6.3
)
Occupancy
96.5
%
 
98.4
%
 
(1.9
)
ADR
$
323

 
$
333

 
(3.0
)
REVPAR
$
312

 
$
327

 
(4.6
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Las Vegas Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
Total room revenues (in thousands)
$
413,152

 
$
408,981

 
1.0

Occupancy
85.2
%
 
86.9
%
 
(1.7
)
ADR
$
285

 
$
274

 
4.0

REVPAR
$
243

 
$
238

 
2.1

(a)    Except occupancy, which is presented as a percentage point change.

Food and beverage revenues decreased $7.6 million to $597.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $604.7 million for the same period of 2014. We experienced a decline of $24.0 million in food and beverage revenues from our Macau Operations, mainly from restaurants, partially offset by an increase of $16.4 million in food and beverage revenues from our Las Vegas Operations, which was driven by increases in revenues at nightclubs and from catering and banquets.

Entertainment, retail and other decreased 12.6%, or $50.6 million, to $350.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $401.2 million for the same period of 2014. The decrease is primarily due to a decline in revenue from retail shops at our Macau Operations.

Promotional allowances decreased 11.9%, or $46.5 million, to $342.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $389.2 million for the same period of 2014. As a percentage of total casino revenues, promotional allowances were 11.7% for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to 9.1% for the same period of 2014, as the decline in total complimentaries was less than the decline in total revenues.

Operating costs and expenses

Operating costs and expenses decreased 18.0%, or $750.3 million, to $3,417.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $4,167.4 million for the same period of 2014, mainly from a decrease in casino expenses.

Casino expenses decreased 30.2%, or $804.3 million, to $1,862.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $2,667.0 million for the same period of 2014, primarily due to lower gaming taxes from the 39.0% gross win tax incurred at our Macau Operations. The decline in gaming taxes was commensurate with the 35.5% decrease in casino revenues at our Macau Operations.

Room expenses were relatively flat for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to the same period of 2014.

Food and beverage expenses increased 7.1%, or $24.0 million, to $361.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $337.2 million for the same period of 2014, due primarily to an increase of $21.8 million from our Las Vegas Operations.

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The increase from our Las Vegas Operations is primarily a result of higher costs in the current period for entertainment at our nightclubs.

Entertainment, retail and other expenses decreased 3.9%, or $6.3 million, to $157.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $163.8 million in the same period of 2014. The decrease is primarily attributable to the reduction in merchandise cost at our Macau Operations associated with the decline in retail shop revenues, partially offset by an increase from our Las Vegas Operations due to costs associated with Steve Wynn's ShowStoppers, which opened in December 2014.

General and administrative expenses decreased 5.6%, or $27.7 million, to $464.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $492.5 million in the same period of 2014, primarily attributable to a decrease in corporate related expenses.

Provision for doubtful accounts increased $7.2 million, or 184.6%, to $11.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $3.9 million for the same period of 2014. The change in the provision was primarily due to the impact of historical collection patterns and current collection trends, as well as specific review of customer accounts and outstanding gaming promoter accounts, on our estimated allowance for the respective periods.

Pre-opening costs were $77.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $30.1 million for the same period of 2014 and were primarily associated with the design and planning for our development projects. During the year ended December 31, 2015, we incurred $55.1 million related to Wynn Palace and $22.6 million related to the Wynn resort in Massachusetts. Pre-opening costs for the year ended December 31, 2014 related to Wynn Palace. We expect our pre-opening costs to increase in 2016 as Wynn Palace progresses toward completion and we begin development of the Wynn resort in Massachusetts.

Depreciation and amortization increased 2.7%, or $8.5 million, to $322.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $314.1 million for the same period of 2014. The increase is primarily due to additional depreciation associated with building improvements at our Macau Operations, including our new VIP gaming rooms. The increase was partially offset by a $7.4 million reduction in depreciation due to a change in the estimated useful lives of certain assets in Macau. Effective September 1, 2015, we changed our estimate of remaining useful lives of buildings and improvements for Wynn Macau to more accurately reflect the estimated periods during which these assets are expected to remain in service. For further information on the change in estimate, see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 2 "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies."
  
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest

The following table summarizes information related to interest expense (in thousands):
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
Percent
Change
Interest expense
 
 
 
 
 
Interest cost, including amortization of deferred financing costs and original issue discount and premium
$
354,233

 
$
348,520

 
1.6

Capitalized interest
(53,327
)
 
(33,458
)
 
59.4

 
$
300,906

 
$
315,062

 
(4.5
)

Our interest cost increased $5.7 million to $354.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, due to an increase in our long-term debt balance, partially offset by a decrease in our weighted average interest rate. Financing activities during 2015 include the issuance of the 5 1/2% senior notes due 2025, cash tender offer and subsequent redemption of the 7 7/8% first mortgage notes due 2020 and 7 3/4% first mortgage notes due 2020 and amendment of the Wynn Macau credit facilities. Financing activities during 2014 include the issuance of 5 1/4% senior notes due 2021. Capitalized interest increased $19.9 million to $53.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, primarily due to the construction of Wynn Palace.

Other non-operating income and expenses

We incurred a loss of $126.0 million on the extinguishment of debt for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to a loss of $9.6 million for the same period of 2014. During 2015, in connection with the cash tender offer and subsequent redemption of untendered 7 7/8% first mortgage notes due 2020 and 7 3/4% first mortgage notes due 2020, we incurred a loss

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of $124.0 million associated with the premium paid and the write-off of unamortized deferred financing costs and original issue discount. In addition, we incurred a loss of $2.1 million related to the write-off of unamortized deferred financing costs associated with the amendment of our Wynn Macau credit facilities. During the year ended December 31, 2014, the loss was for the premium paid on first mortgage notes due 2020 through open market transactions and the write-off of related unamortized deferred financing costs and original issue discount.

During the year ended December 31, 2015, we recognized a gain of $52.0 million from the change in fair value of the Redemption Note as a result of changes in certain variables used in the estimated fair value. No change was recognized in the same period of 2014. For further information on the fair value of the Redemption Note, see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 2 "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies."

We incurred a loss of $5.3 million and $4.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, from the change in the fair value of our interest rate swaps. For further information on our interest rate swaps, see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 2 "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies."

Interest income was $7.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $20.4 million for 2014. During 2015 and 2014, our short-term investment strategy has been to preserve capital while retaining sufficient liquidity. The majority of our short-term investment securities were in fixed deposits and money market accounts with a maturity of three months or less.

Income Taxes
For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, we recorded a tax expense of $7.7 million and a tax benefit of $3.8 million, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2015, our income tax expense is primarily related to an increase in our deferred tax liabilities. For the year ended December 31, 2014, our benefit for income taxes was primarily related to a release of valuation allowance on prior year foreign tax credits resulting from the implementation of a tax planning strategy.
Wynn Macau SA received a 5-year exemption from Macau's Complementary Tax on casino gaming profits through December 31, 2015. In October 2015, Wynn Macau SA received an additional 5-year exemption, effective January 1, 2016, from Macau's Complementary Tax on casino gaming profits through December 31, 2020. During the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, we were exempt from the payment of $41.6 million and $99.4 million in such taxes, respectively. Our non-gaming profits remain subject to the Macau Complementary Tax and casino winnings remain subject to the Macau Special Gaming tax and other levies together totaling 39% in accordance with our concession agreement.
In 2011, Wynn Macau SA entered into an agreement with the Macau Special Administrative Region that provides for an annual payment of 15.5 million Macau patacas ("MOP") (approximately $1.9 million) to the Macau Special Administrative Region as complementary tax due by shareholders on dividend distributions. This agreement on dividends is effective through December 31, 2015. In June 2015, Wynn Macau SA applied for an extension of the agreement for an additional five years effective January 1, 2016 through December 31, 2020.
We have participated in the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") Compliance Assurance Program ("CAP") for 2013 through 2015 tax years and will continue to participate in the IRS CAP for the 2016 tax year. In February 2016, the IRS completed an examination of the 2014 U.S. tax return and had no changes.
In December 2015, the Financial Services Bureau completed an examination of the 2012 Macau income tax return of Wynn Macau SA. While no additional tax was due, adjustments were made to our foreign net operating loss carryforwards.

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests was $86.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $231.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. These amounts represent the noncontrolling interests' share of net income from Wynn Macau, Limited for each year.


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Financial results for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to the year ended December 31, 2013.

Net Revenues

The following table presents net revenues from our Macau and Las Vegas Operations (in thousands): 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
Percent
Change
Net revenues
 
 
 
 
 
Macau Operations
$
3,796,750

 
$
4,040,526

 
(6.0
)
Las Vegas Operations
1,636,911

 
1,580,410

 
3.6

 
$
5,433,661

 
$
5,620,936

 
(3.3
)
 
Net revenues increased 3.3% to $5,433.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, from $5,620.9 million for the same period in 2013. The decline in net revenues was primarily driven by a decrease of 5.8%, or $221.1 million, in casino revenue from our Macau Operations, partially offset by an increase of 5.8%, or $51.8 million, in non-casino revenues from our Las Vegas Operations.

The following table presents net revenues from our casino revenues and non-casino revenues (in thousands).
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
Percent
Change
Net revenues
 
 
 
 
 
Casino revenues
$
4,274,221

 
$
4,490,637

 
(4.8
)
Non-casino revenues
1,159,440

 
1,130,299

 
2.6

 
$
5,433,661

 
$
5,620,936

 
(3.3
)

Casino revenues were 78.7% of total net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to 79.9% of total net revenues for the same period of 2013, while non-casino revenues were 21.3% of total net revenues, compared to 20.1% in the prior year.

Casino Revenues

Casino revenues decreased 4.8% to $4,274.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, from $4,490.6 million in the same period of 2013. Our Macau Operations experienced a year-over-year decrease in casino revenues of 5.8% from $3,807.9 million to $3,586.8 million. The decrease is primarily due to a decrease from our VIP gaming operations, partially offset by an increase in table games win of 19.7% from our mass market gaming operations. Our VIP gaming operations experienced a 12.1% reduction in turnover and a decline in win as a percentage of turnover from 3.01% to 2.82%. Las Vegas Operations were relatively flat year-over-year with casino revenues of $687.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to $682.8 million in the same period of 2013.


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The table below sets forth our casino revenues and associated key operating measures for our Macau and Las Vegas Operations (dollars in thousands, except for win per unit per day).
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
Increase/
(Decrease)
 
Percent
Change
Macau Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total casino revenues
$
3,586,781

 
$
3,807,850

 
$
(221,069
)
 
(5.8
)
Average number of table games
461

 
491

 
(30
)
 
(6.1
)
VIP
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average number of table games
259

 
283

 
(24
)
 
(8.5
)
VIP turnover
$
108,077,342

 
$
122,991,763

 
$
(14,914,421
)
 
(12.1
)
Table games win
$
3,051,046

 
$
3,696,224

 
$
(645,178
)
 
(17.5
)
VIP win as a % of turnover
2.82
%
 
3.01
%
 
(0.19
)
 
 
Table games win per unit per day
$
32,258

 
$
35,797

 
$
(3,539
)
 
(9.9
)
Mass market
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average number of table games
202

 
208

 
(6
)
 
(2.9
)
Table drop
$
5,517,382

 
$
4,893,998

 
$
623,384

 
12.7

Table games win
$
1,187,997

 
$
992,872

 
$
195,125

 
19.7

Table games win %
21.5
%
 
19.9
%
 
1.6

 
 
Table games win per unit per day
$
16,154

 
$
13,098

 
$
3,056

 
23.3

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average number of slot machines
679

 
866

 
(187
)
 
(21.6
)
Slot machine handle
$
5,415,127

 
$
4,846,938

 
$
568,189

 
11.7

Slot machine win
$
264,763

 
$
245,578

 
$
19,185

 
7.8

Slot machine win per unit per day
$
1,068

 
$
777

 
$
291

 
37.5

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Las Vegas Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total casino revenues
$
687,440

 
$
682,787

 
$
4,653

 
0.7

Average number of table games
232

 
233

 
(1
)
 
(0.4
)
Table drop
$
2,556,452

 
$
2,617,634

 
$
(61,182
)
 
(2.3
)
Table games win
$
623,968

 
$
657,927

 
$
(33,959
)
 
(5.2
)
Table games win %
24.4
%
 
25.1
%
 
(0.7
)
 
 
Table games win per unit per day
$
7,354

 
$
7,729

 
$
(375
)
 
(4.9
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average number of slot machines
1,858

 
2,030

 
(172
)
 
(8.5
)
Slot machine handle
$
3,008,563

 
$
2,874,646

 
$
133,917

 
4.7

Slot machine win
$
186,458

 
$
177,452

 
$
9,006

 
5.1

Slot machine win per unit per day
$
275

 
$
239

 
$
36

 
15.1


Non-casino revenues

Non-casino revenues increased 2.6%, or $29.1 million, to $1,159.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, from $1,130.3 million for the same period of 2013, driven by a 10.3% increase in room revenues.

Room revenues increased 10.3%, or $50.5 million, to $542.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, from $492.2 million in the same period of 2013. Our Las Vegas Operations accounted for $31.4 million of the increase, while Macau Operations accounted for $19.1 million, both experiencing an increase in ADR and occupancy.


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The table below sets forth our room revenues and associated key operating measures for our Macau and Las Vegas Operations.
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
Percent
Change (a)
Macau Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
Total room revenues (in thousands)
$
133,781

 
$
114,638

 
16.7
Occupancy
98.4
%
 
95.5
%
 
2.9
ADR
$
333

 
$
313

 
6.4
REVPAR
$
327

 
$
299

 
9.4
 
 
 
 
 
 
Las Vegas Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
Total room revenues (in thousands)
$
408,981

 
$
377,592

 
8.3
Occupancy
86.9
%
 
84.6
%
 
2.3
ADR
$
274

 
$
258

 
6.2
REVPAR
$
238

 
$
218

 
9.2
(a)
Except occupancy, which is presented as a percentage point change.

Food and beverage revenues increased 3.1%, or $18.0 million, to $604.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, from $586.7 million for the same period of 2013. The increase is primarily a result of an increase in revenues at our Las Vegas Operations.

Entertainment, retail and other decreased 4.2%, or $17.5 million, to $401.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, from $418.7 million for the same period of 2013. The decrease is primarily due to a decline in revenue from retail shops at our Macau Operations.

Promotional allowances increased 6.0%, or $21.9 million, to $389.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, from $367.3 million for the same period of 2013. As a percentage of total casino revenues, promotional allowances were 9.1% for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to 8.2% for the same period of 2013.

Operating costs and expenses

Operating costs and expenses decreased 3.8%, or $163.5 million, to $4,167.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, from $4,330.8 million for the same period of 2013. The reduction was primarily driven by decreases of casino expenses and depreciation and amortization, partially offset by increases in general and administrative expenses and pre-opening costs.

Casino expenses decreased 6.3%, or $179.5 million, to $2,667.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, from $2,846.5 million for the same period of 2013, primarily due to lower gaming taxes from the 39.0% gross win tax incurred at our Macau Operations. The decline in gaming taxes was commensurate with the 5.8% decrease in casino revenues at our Macau Operations.

Room expenses increased 11.1%, or $14.8 million, to $148.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, from $133.5 million for the same period of 2013. The increase is due to certain room expenses from our Las Vegas Operations to maintain a premium guest experience and expenses associated with the increase in occupancy over the prior year at both our Macau and Las Vegas Operations.

Food and beverage expenses increased 4.2%, or $13.6 million, to $337.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, from $323.6 million for the same period of 2013. The increase in food and beverage expenses is primarily a result of higher costs in the current period for entertainment at Wynn Las Vegas nightclubs.

General and administrative expenses increased 9.7%, or $43.7 million, to $492.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 from $448.8 million in the same period of 2013 primarily from our Macau Operations. Our Macau Operations experienced an increase compared to the prior year in labor costs, along with certain property maintenance and repair expenses and other miscellaneous items. Our Macau Operations incurred additional general and administrative labor costs associated with a new 2014 bonus program for non-management employees.

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Pre-opening costs were $30.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to $3.2 million for the same period of 2013 and were attributable to Wynn Palace. We expect our pre-opening costs to increase in the future as the construction and development of Wynn Palace progresses toward the expected opening date in the first half of 2016 and with the beginning of development for the Wynn resort in Massachusetts.

Depreciation and amortization decreased 15.3%, or $56.9 million, to $314.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to $371.1 million for the same period of 2013 due to certain Las Vegas Operations assets with a five-year useful life becoming fully depreciated.

Interest expense, net of capitalized interest

The following table summarizes information related to interest expense (in thousands):

 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
Percent
Change
Interest expense
 
 
 
 
 
Interest cost, including amortization of deferred financing costs and original issue discount and premium
$
348,520

 
$
309,506

 
12.6
Capitalized interest
(33,458
)
 
(10,485
)
 
219.1
 
$
315,062

 
$
299,021

 
5.4

Interest expense, net of capitalized interest, increased 5.4%, or $16.0 million, to $315.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, up from $299.0 million for the same period of 2013, attributable to a $39.0 million increase in interest expense partially offset by a $23.0 million increase in capitalized interest. During 2013, we completed issuances of $500.0 million 4 1/4% senior notes, $600.0 million 5 1/4% senior notes and exercised our option to increase our Macau senior term loan facility by $200.0 million. During the first quarter of 2014, we issued an additional $750.0 million of 5 1/4% senior notes. These issuances of long-term debt were partially offset by the principal repayment of $500.0 million 7 7/8% first mortgage notes through a cash tender offer in May 2013 and redemption of untendered notes in November 2013. In addition, our interest expense associated with our first mortgage notes reduced year-over-year as a result of open market repurchases we made during 2014. Capitalized interest increased due to the construction costs of Wynn Palace. Capitalized interest will continue to increase with the ongoing borrowings and construction costs related to Wynn Palace.

Other non-operating income and expenses

We incurred a loss of $9.6 million on the extinguishment of debt for the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to a loss of $40.4 million in 2013. During the year ended December 31, 2014, the loss was due to the premium paid on the purchase of first mortgage notes due in 2020 through open market transactions and the write-off of related unamortized deferred financing costs and original issue discount. During the year ended December 31, 2013, the loss was primarily from the premium paid in the cash tender offer of our first mortgage notes due in 2017 and the write-off of related unamortized deferred financing costs and original issue discount.

We incurred a loss of $4.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 from the decrease in the fair value of our interest rate swaps, compared to a gain of $14.2 million from the increase in fair value in 2013.

Interest income was $20.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to $15.7 million in 2013. During 2014 and 2013, our short-term investment strategy has been to preserve capital while retaining sufficient liquidity. The majority of our short-term investments were in time deposits, fixed deposits and money market accounts with a maturity of three months or less.
 
Income Taxes

For the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, we recorded a tax benefit of $3.8 million and $17.6 million, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2014, our benefit for income taxes was primarily related to a release of valuation allowance on prior year FTCs resulting from the implementation of a tax planning strategy. For the year ended December 31,

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2013, our income tax benefit was primarily related to a decrease in our deferred tax liabilities reduced by foreign taxes assessable on the dividends of Wynn Macau SA.

Wynn Macau SA received an exemption from Macau's 12% Complementary Tax on casino gaming profits through December 31, 2015. Accordingly, we were exempt from the payment of $99.4 million and $107.3 million in such taxes during the year ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Our non-gaming profits remained subject to the Macau Complementary Tax and casino winnings remained subject to the Macau Special Gaming tax and other levies together totaling 39% in accordance with our concession agreement.

In February 2014, we received notification that the IRS completed its examination of our 2012 U.S. income tax return and had no changes.

In March 2013, the Financial Services Bureau commenced an examination of the 2009, 2010, and 2011 Macau income tax returns of Wynn Macau SA. In December 2014, Wynn Macau SA reached an agreement with the Macau Financial Services Bureau regarding issues raised during its examination. While no additional tax was due as a result of the examination, adjustments were made to Wynn Macau SA's foreign net operating loss carryforwards. On December 31, 2014, the statute of limitations for the 2009 Macau Complementary tax return expired.

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests was $231.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to $275.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. These amounts represent the noncontrolling interests' share of net income from Wynn Macau, Limited for each year.

Adjusted Property EBITDA

We use Adjusted Property EBITDA to manage the operating results of our segments. Adjusted Property EBITDA is net income before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, pre-opening costs, property charges and other, management and license fees, corporate expenses and other, intercompany golf course and water rights leases, stock-based compensation, loss on extinguishment of debt, change in interest rate swap fair value, change in Redemption Note fair value and other non-operating income and expenses, and includes equity in income from unconsolidated affiliates. Adjusted Property EBITDA is presented exclusively as a supplemental disclosure because we believe that it is widely used to measure the performance, and as a basis for valuation, of gaming companies. We use Adjusted Property EBITDA as a measure of the operating performance of our segments and to compare the operating performance of our properties with those of our competitors. We also present Adjusted Property EBITDA because it is used by some investors as a way to measure a company's ability to incur and service debt, make capital expenditures and meet working capital requirements. Gaming companies have historically reported EBITDA as a supplement to financial measures in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). In order to view the operations of their casinos on a more stand-alone basis, gaming companies, including us, have historically excluded from their EBITDA calculations pre-opening expenses, property charges, corporate expenses and stock-based compensation that do not relate to the management of specific casino properties. However, Adjusted Property EBITDA should not be considered as an alternative to operating income as an indicator of our performance, as an alternative to cash flows from operating activities as a measure of liquidity, or as an alternative to any other measure determined in accordance with GAAP. Unlike measures of net income, Adjusted Property EBITDA does not include depreciation or interest expense and therefore does not reflect current or future capital expenditures or the cost of capital. We have significant uses of cash flows, including capital expenditures, interest payments, debt principal repayments, taxes and other non-recurring charges, which are not reflected in Adjusted Property EBITDA. Also, our calculation of Adjusted Property EBITDA may be different from the calculation methods used by other companies and, therefore, comparability may be limited.

The following table summarizes Adjusted Property EBITDA (in thousands) for our Macau and Las Vegas Operations as reviewed by management and summarized in Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 18 "Segment Information." That footnote also presents a reconciliation of Adjusted Property EBITDA to net income.
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Macau Operations
$
708,623

 
$
1,258,082

 
$
1,324,119

Las Vegas Operations
477,166

 
515,196

 
486,682

 
$
1,185,789

 
$
1,773,278

 
$
1,810,801



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Adjusted Property EBITDA at our Macau and Las Vegas Operations decreased year-over-year by 43.7% and 7.4%, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2015, primarily due to the decline in casino revenues.

Adjusted Property EBITDA at our Macau Operations decreased year-over-year by 5.0% for the year ended December 31, 2014, due to a decline in VIP turnover, partially offset by an increase in table games win from our mass market gaming operations. Adjusted Property EBITDA at our Las Vegas Operations increased year-over-year by 5.9% for the year ended December 31, 2014, driven by our non-casino revenue performance.

Refer to the discussions above regarding the specific details of our results of operations.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Operating Activities

Our operating cash flows primarily consist of our operating income generated by our Macau and Las Vegas Operations (excluding depreciation and other non-cash charges), interest paid and earned, and changes in working capital accounts such as receivables, inventories, prepaid expenses, and payables. Our table games play both in Macau and Las Vegas is a mix of cash play and credit play, while our slot machine play is conducted primarily on a cash basis. A significant portion of our table games revenue is attributable to the play of a limited number of premium international customers that gamble on credit. The ability to collect these gaming receivables may impact our operating cash flow for the period. Our rooms, food and beverage, and entertainment, retail, and other revenue is conducted primarily on a cash basis or as a trade receivable. Accordingly, operating cash flows will be impacted by changes in operating income and accounts receivables.

Net cash provided by operations for the year ended December 31, 2015 was $572.8 million, compared to $1,098.3 million provided by operations for the year ended December 31, 2014. The reduction was primarily due to lower operating income generated by our Macau Operations and from the change in ordinary working capital accounts.

Net cash provided by operations for the year ended December 31, 2014 was $1,098.3 million, compared to $1,676.6 million for the same period of 2013, with the reduction due to lower operating income in 2014 and from the change in ordinary working capital accounts. 

Net cash provided by operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 was $1,676.6 million compared to $1,185.7 million for the same period of 2012. The increase was primarily due to significant changes in ordinary working capital accounts and higher operating income in 2013.

Investing Activities

Net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2015 was $1,891.6 million, which was primarily attributable to $1,921.2 million in capital expenditures, net of construction payables and retention, with majority for Wynn Palace construction.

Net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2014 was $1,114.4 million, which was primarily attributable to $1,221.4 million in capital expenditures, net of construction payables and retention, with majority for Wynn Palace construction. We also used cash of $86.7 million for payment of our Massachusetts gaming license.

Net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2013 was $677.6 million, which was primarily attributable to $514.8 million in capital expenditures related to site preparation costs for Wynn Palace land and various renovations at our resorts including Wynn Macau guest room renovations.

Financing Activities

Net cash provided by financing activities was $1,216.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. During the year ended December 31, 2015 we amended our Wynn Macau credit facilities and received proceeds of $2.27 billion from our fully funded senior secured term loan facility. These proceeds were used to repay $953.3 million in outstanding borrowings under the senior secured term loan facility dated July 30, 2012 and $815.8 million in outstanding borrowings under the senior secured revolving credit facility dated July 30, 2012, of which $683.3 million had been previously borrowed during 2015. We also issued $1.8 billion of 5 1/2% senior notes due in 2025 and used the proceeds for the purchase of $1.6 billion of our first mortgage notes due in 2020.


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Net cash used in financing activities was $235.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, which was mainly due to the payment of dividends of $942.9 million and payments on our long-term debt, primarily offset by proceeds of $755.6 million from the issuance of senior notes and $132.6 million from borrowings, net of repayments, under our Wynn Macau revolving credit facility. During 2014, we used $98.4 million for open market purchases of principal on our first mortgage notes and $31.5 million for the repayment of remaining principal on our note payable secured by aircraft.

Net cash used in financing activities was $291.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, which was primarily attributable to the payment of dividends of $1,035.0 million and the redemption of first mortgage notes of $500.0 million, offset by proceeds from the issuance of senior notes of $1,100.0 million and the increase in our senior term loan facility of $200.0 million.

Capital Resources

As of December 31, 2015, we had approximately $2,080.1 million of cash and cash equivalents and $251.6 million of available-for-sale investments in domestic and foreign debt securities and commercial paper. Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, cash in bank and fixed deposits, investments in money market funds, domestic and foreign bank time deposits and commercial paper, all with maturities of less than 90 days. Of these amounts, Wynn Macau, Limited and its subsidiaries (of which we own 72%) held $868.4 million in cash. If our portion of this cash was repatriated to the U.S. on December 31, 2015, it would not be subject to U.S. tax in the year of repatriation. Wynn Las Vegas, LLC held cash balances of $77.1 million. Wynn Resorts, Limited (including its subsidiaries other than Wynn Macau, Limited and Wynn Las Vegas, LLC), which is not a guarantor of the debt of its subsidiaries, held $1,134.6 million and $251.6 million of cash and available-for-sale investments, respectively.

The Wynn Macau credit facilities consist of a $2.27 billion equivalent fully funded senior secured term loan facility and a $750.0 million equivalent senior secured revolving credit facility (together, the "Wynn Macau Credit Facilities"). Borrowings under the Wynn Macau Credit Facilities consist of both United States dollar and Hong Kong dollar tranches and were used to refinance Wynn Macau SA's existing indebtedness, and will be used to fund the construction and development of Wynn Palace and for general corporate purposes. As of December 31, 2015, we had $318.8 million of available borrowing capacity under the senior secured revolving credit facility.

The Wynn America credit facilities consist of a $375.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility and an $875.0 million delay draw senior secured term loan facility (together, the "Wynn America Credit Facilities"). Borrowings under the Wynn America Credit Facilities will be used to fund the design, development, construction and pre-opening expenses of the Wynn resort in Massachusetts and for general corporate purposes. As of December 31, 2015, we had borrowed $70.0 million of the delay draw senior secured term loan facility. Of the remaining $805.0 million delay draw senior secured term loan facility, the borrowing period is March 30, 2016, for up to $100.3 million and June 30, 2016, for up to $704.7 million. As of December 31, 2015, we had $1.17 billion of available borrowing capacity under the senior secured revolving credit facility, which includes a reduction for outstanding letters of credit totaling $11.7 million.

We expect that our future cash needs will relate primarily to operations, funding of development projects and enhancements to our operating resorts, debt service and retirement and general corporate purposes. We expect to meet our cash needs including our contractual obligations with future anticipated cash flow from operations, availability under our bank credit facilities and our existing cash balances. We intend to primarily fund our current development projects, Wynn Palace and the Wynn resort in Massachusetts, with the available borrowing capacity under our bank credit facilities.

Macau Related Debt

Our Macau related debt consists of senior notes and the Wynn Macau Credit Facilities.

On March 20, 2014, Wynn Macau, Limited ("WML"), an indirect subsidiary of Wynn Resorts, Limited, issued $750.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5 1/4% Senior Notes due 2021 (the "Additional 2021 Notes"), which were consolidated and form a single series with the $600.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5 1/4% Senior Notes due 2021 issued by WML on October 16, 2013 (the "Original 2021 Notes" and together with the "Additional 2021 Notes," the "2021 Notes").

The 2021 Notes will bear interest at the rate of 5 1/4% per annum and will mature on October 15, 2021. Interest on the 2021 Notes is payable semi-annually in arrears on April 15 and October 15 of each year, beginning on April 15, 2014. At any time on or before October 14, 2016, WML may redeem the 2021 Notes, in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to the greater of (a) 100% of the aggregate principal amount of the 2021 Notes or (b) a "make-whole" amount as determined by an independent investment banker in accordance with the terms of the indenture for the 2021 Notes, dated as of October 16, 2013

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(the "WML Indenture"). In either case, the redemption price would include accrued and unpaid interest. In addition, on or after October 15, 2016, WML may redeem the 2021 Notes, in whole or in part, at a premium decreasing annually from 103.94% of the principal amount to zero, plus accrued and unpaid interest. If WML undergoes a Change of Control (as defined in the WML Indenture), it must offer to repurchase the 2021 Notes at a price equal to 101% of the aggregate principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest. In addition, we may redeem the 2021 Notes, in whole but not in part, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, in response to any change in or amendment to certain tax laws or tax positions. Further, if a holder or beneficial owner of the 2021 Notes fails to meet certain requirements imposed by any Gaming Authority (as defined in the WML Indenture), WML may require the holder or beneficial owner to dispose of or redeem its 2021 Notes.

The 2021 Notes are WML's general unsecured obligations and rank pari passu in right of payment with all of WML's existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness; will rank senior to all of WML's future subordinated indebtedness, if any; will be effectively subordinated to all of WML's future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt; and will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future obligations of WML's subsidiaries, including Wynn Macau Credit Facilities' existing credit facilities. The 2021 Notes are not registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), and the 2021 Notes are subject to restrictions on transferability and resale.

The WML Indenture contains covenants limiting WML's (and certain of its subsidiaries') ability to, among other things: merge or consolidate with another company; transfer or sell all or substantially all of its properties or assets; and lease all or substantially all of its properties or assets. The terms of the WML Indenture contain customary events of default, including, but not limited to: default for 30 days in the payment when due of interest on the 2021 Notes; default in the payment when due of the principal of, or premium, if any, on the 2021 Notes; failure to comply with any payment obligations relating to the repurchase by WML of the 2021 Notes upon a change of control; failure to comply with certain covenants in the WML Indenture; certain defaults on certain other indebtedness; failure to pay judgments against WML or certain subsidiaries that, in the aggregate, exceed $50.0 million; and certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency. In the case of an event of default arising from certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, all 2021 Notes then outstanding will become due and payable immediately without further action or notice.

On September 30, 2015, we amended our Wynn Macau Credit Facilities. The borrowing availability was increased to $3.05 billion with ability to upsize an additional $1 billion in equivalent senior secured loans upon satisfaction of various conditions. The senior secured term loan facility is repayable in graduating installments of between 2.5% and 7.33% of the principal amount on a quarterly basis commencing December 2018, with a final installment of 50% of the principal amount repayable in September 2021 (extended from July 2018). Any outstanding borrowings from the senior secured revolving credit facility will mature in September 2020 (extended from July 2017) by which time any outstanding borrowings from the senior secured revolving credit facility must be repaid. The Wynn Macau Credit Facilities bear interest at LIBOR or HIBOR plus a margin of 1.50% to 2.25% per annum based on Wynn Macau SA's Leverage Ratio (as defined in the Wynn Macau Credit Facilities). The commitment fee required to pay for unborrowed amounts under the senior secured revolving credit facility, if any, is between 0.52% to 0.79% per annum, based on Wynn Macau SA's Leverage Ratio. The annual commitment fee is payable quarterly in arrears and calculated based on the daily average of the unborrowed amounts.

The Wynn Macau Credit Facilities contain a requirement that Wynn Macau SA must make mandatory repayments of indebtedness from specified percentages of excess cash flow. If Wynn Macau SA's Leverage Ratio is greater than 4.5 to 1, then 25% of Excess Cash Flow (as defined in the Wynn Macau Credit Facilities) must be used for prepayment of indebtedness and cancellation of available borrowings under the Wynn Macau Credit Facilities. There is no mandatory prepayment in respect of Excess Cash Flow if Wynn Macau SA's Leverage Ratio is equal to or less than 4.5 to 1.

The Wynn Macau Credit Facilities contain customary covenants restricting certain activities including, but not limited to: the incurrence of additional indebtedness, the incurrence or creation of liens on any of its property, sale and leaseback transactions, the ability to dispose of assets, and making loans or other investments. In addition, Wynn Macau SA is required by the financial covenants to maintain a Leverage Ratio of not greater than 5.25 to 1 for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2015, and an Interest Coverage Ratio (as defined in the Wynn Macau Credit Facilities) of not less than 2.00 to 1 at any time.

Borrowings under the Wynn Macau Credit Facilities will continue to be guaranteed by Palo Real Estate Company Limited ("Palo"), a subsidiary of Wynn Macau SA, and by certain subsidiaries of the Company that own equity interests in Wynn Macau SA, and are secured by substantially all of the assets of Wynn Macau SA and Palo, and the equity interests in Wynn Macau SA. Borrowings under the Wynn Macau Facilities are not guaranteed by the Company or WML.

In connection with the gaming concession contract of Wynn Macau SA, Wynn Macau SA entered into a Bank Guarantee Reimbursement Agreement with Banco Nacional Ultramarino, S.A. ("BNU") for the benefit of the Macau government. This

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guarantee assures Wynn Macau SA's performance under the casino concession agreement, including the payment of premiums, fines and indemnity for any material failure to perform under the terms of the concession agreement and the payment of any gaming taxes. As of December 31, 2015, the guarantee was in the amount of  MOP 300.0 million (approximately $37.0 million) and will remain at such amount until 180 days after the end of the term of the concession agreement (2022). BNU, as issuer of the guarantee, is currently secured by a second priority security interest in the senior lender collateral package. From and after repayment of all indebtedness under the Wynn Macau Credit Facilities, Wynn Macau SA is obligated to promptly, upon demand by BNU, repay any claim made on the guarantee by the Macau government. BNU is paid an annual fee for the guarantee of MOP 2.3 million (approximately $0.3 million).

U.S. and Corporate Related Debt

Our U.S. related debt consists of first mortgage notes, senior notes and the Wynn America Credit Facilities. The Corporate related debt consists of the Redemption Price Promissory Note ("Redemption Note").

The first mortgage notes (the "2022 Notes") were issued by Wynn Las Vegas, LLC and Wynn Las Vegas Capital Corp., an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Wynn Resorts, Limited (together, the "Issuers"). The 2022 Notes are senior obligations of the Issuers and are unsecured (except by the first priority pledge by Wynn Las Vegas Holdings, LLC of its equity interests in Wynn Las Vegas, LLC (the "Holdings pledge")). These issuances rank pari passu in right of payment with the 2023 Notes and the 2025 Notes (defined below) and are not guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries. If the Issuers undergo a change of control (as defined in the applicable indenture), they must offer to repurchase the first mortgage notes at 101% of the principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest. The indentures governing the first mortgage notes contain customary negative covenants and financial covenants, including, but not limited to, covenants that restrict Wynn Las Vegas, LLC's ability to: pay dividends or distributions or repurchase equity; incur additional debt; make investments; create liens on assets to secure debt; enter into transactions with affiliates; enter into sale-leaseback transactions; merge or consolidate with another company; and transfer and sell assets or create dividend and other payment restrictions affecting subsidiaries.

In May 2013, the Issuers completed the issuance of $500.0 million aggregate principal amount of 4 1/4% Senior Notes due 2023 (the "2023 Notes") pursuant to an indenture, dated as of May 22, 2013 (the "2023 Indenture"), among the Issuers, the Guarantors (as defined below) and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee.

The 2023 Notes will mature on May 30, 2023 and bear interest at the rate of 4 1/4% per annum. The Issuers may, at their option, redeem the 2023 Notes, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time prior to their stated maturity. The redemption price for 2023 Notes that are redeemed before February 28, 2023 will include a make-whole premium. The 2023 Notes are also subject to mandatory redemption requirements imposed by gaming laws and regulations of gaming authorities in Nevada.

The 2023 Notes are the Issuers' senior unsecured obligations and rank pari passu in right of payment with the Issuers' first mortgage notes and 2025 Notes (as defined below). The 2023 Notes are unsecured (except by the Holdings pledge). The Holdings pledge also secures the first mortgage notes and the 2025 Notes. If Wynn Resorts, Limited receives an investment grade rating from one or more ratings agencies, the first priority pledge securing the 2023 Notes will be released.

The 2023 Notes are jointly and severally guaranteed by all of the Issuers' subsidiaries, other than Wynn Las Vegas Capital Corp. which was a co-issuer (the "Guarantors"). The guarantees are senior unsecured obligations of the Guarantors and rank senior in right of payment to all of their existing and future subordinated debt. The guarantees rank equally in right of payment with all existing and future liabilities of the Guarantors that are not so subordinated and will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to all of such Guarantors' existing and future secured debt (to the extent of the collateral securing such debt).

The 2023 Indenture contains covenants limiting the Issuers' and the Guarantors' ability to create liens on assets to secure debt; enter into sale-leaseback transactions; and merge or consolidate with another company. These covenants are subject to a number of important and significant limitations, qualifications and exceptions.

Events of default under the 2023 Indenture include, among others, the following: default for 30 days in the payment when due of interest on the 2023 Notes; default in payment when due of the principal of, or premium, if any, on the 2023 Notes; failure to comply with certain covenants in the 2023 Indenture; and certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency. In the case of an event of default arising from certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency with respect to the Issuers or any Guarantor, all 2023 Notes then outstanding will become due and payable immediately without further action or notice.


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On February 18, 2015, the Issuers completed the issuance of $1.8 billion aggregate principal amount of 5 1/2% Senior Notes due March 1, 2025 (the "2025 Notes") pursuant to an indenture, dated as of February 18, 2015 (the "2025 Indenture"), among the Issuers, Guarantors and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee.
The 2025 Notes will mature on March 1, 2025 and bear interest at the rate of 5 1/2% per annum. The Issuers may, at their option, redeem the 2025 Notes, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time prior to their stated maturity. The redemption price for 2025 Notes that are redeemed before December 1, 2024 will be equal to the greater of (a) 100% of the principal amount of the 2025 Notes to be redeemed and (b) a "make-whole" amount described in the 2025 Indenture, plus in either case accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the redemption date. The redemption price for the 2025 Notes that are redeemed on or after December 1, 2024 will be equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2025 Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the redemption date. In the event of a change of control triggering event, the Issuers will be required to offer to repurchase the 2025 Notes at 101% of the principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the repurchase date. The 2025 Notes also are subject to mandatory redemption requirements imposed by gaming laws and regulations of gaming authorities in Nevada.
The 2025 Notes are the Issuers' senior unsecured obligations and rank pari passu in right of payment with the Issuers' 2022 Notes and 2023 Notes (together, the "Existing Notes"). The 2025 Notes are unsecured (except by the Holding pledge). The equity interests in Wynn Las Vegas also secure the Existing Notes. If Wynn Resorts, Limited receives an investment grade rating from one or more ratings agencies, the first priority pledge securing the 2025 Notes will be released.
The 2025 Notes are jointly and severally guaranteed by all of the Issuers' subsidiaries. The guarantees are senior unsecured obligations and rank senior in right of payment to all of their existing and future subordinated debt. The guarantees rank equally in right of payment with all existing and future liabilities of the Issuers' subsidiaries that are not so subordinated and will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to all of such existing and future secured debt (to the extent of the collateral securing such debt).
The 2025 Indenture contains covenants limiting the Issuers' and Guarantors' ability to create liens on assets to secure debt; enter into sale-leaseback transactions; and merge or consolidate with another company. These covenants are subject to a number of important and significant limitations, qualifications and exceptions.
Events of default under the 2025 Indenture include, among others, the following: default for 30 days in the payment when due of interest on the 2025 Notes; default in payment when due of the principal of, or premium, if any, on the 2025 Notes; failure to comply with certain covenants in the 2025 Indenture; and certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency. In the case of an event of default arising from certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency with respect to the Issuers or Issuers' subsidiaries (as guarantors), other than Wynn Las Vegas Capital Corp., all 2025 Notes then outstanding will become due and payable immediately without further action or notice.

On November 20, 2014, Wynn America, an indirect wholly owned subsidiary, and certain subsidiaries of Wynn America entered into a $1.25 billion senior secured credit facility. The revolving credit facility matures in November 2019. The term loan facility matures in November 2020 and will require quarterly principal payments, scheduled to begin in June 2018. Subject to certain exceptions, the Wynn America Credit Facilities bear interest at either base rate plus 0.75% per annum or the reserve adjusted eurodollar rate plus 1.75% per annum. The annual fee required to pay for unborrowed amounts, if any, is 0.30% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears, calculated based on the daily average of the unborrowed amounts under such credit facilities.

The Wynn America Credit Facilities contain customary representation and warranties, events of default and negative and affirmative covenants, including, among other things, limitations on: indebtedness; investments; restricted payments; mergers and acquisitions; payments of indebtedness; negative pledges; liens; transactions with affiliates and sales of assets. In addition, Wynn America is subject to financial covenants including maintaining a Maximum Consolidated Senior Secured Net Leverage Ratio and a Minimum Consolidated EBITDA, each as defined in the Wynn America Credit Facilities. Commencing with the second full fiscal quarter ending after the fiscal quarter in which the opening of the Wynn resort in Massachusetts occurs, the Maximum Consolidated Senior Secured Net Leverage Ratio is not to exceed 2.75 to 1. Commencing with the fiscal quarter ending December 31, 2015, the Minimum Consolidated EBITDA is not to be less than $200.0 million.

We provided a completion guaranty in favor of the lenders under the Wynn America Credit Facilities to support the development and opening of the Wynn resort in Massachusetts. Wynn America and the guarantors have entered into a security agreement in favor of the lenders under the Wynn America Credit Facilities pursuant to which, subject to certain exceptions, Wynn America and the guarantors have pledged all equity interests in the guarantors to the extent permitted by applicable law and granted a first priority security interest in substantially all of the other existing and future assets of the guarantors.


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Based on the Board of Director's finding of "unsuitability," on February 18, 2012, we redeemed and canceled Aruze's 24,549,222 shares of Wynn Resorts' common stock. Following a finding of "unsuitability," our articles of incorporation authorize redemption at "fair value" of the shares held by unsuitable persons. Pursuant to the articles of incorporation, we issued the Redemption Note to Aruze, a former stockholder and related party, in redemption of the shares. The Redemption Note has a principal amount of approximately $1.94 billion, matures on February 18, 2022 and bears interest at the rate of 2% per annum, payable annually in arrears on each anniversary of the date of the Redemption Note. We may, in our sole and absolute discretion, at any time and from time to time, and without penalty or premium, prepay the whole or any portion of the principal or interest due under the Redemption Note. In no instance shall any payment obligation under the Redemption Note be accelerated except in the sole and absolute discretion of Wynn Resorts or as specifically mandated by law. The indebtedness evidenced by the Redemption Note, is subordinated to the prior payment in full of all existing and future obligations of Wynn Resorts and any of its affiliates in respect of indebtedness for borrowed money of any kind or nature. Aruze, Universal Entertainment Corporation and Kazuo Okada have challenged the redemption of Aruze's shares and we are currently involved in litigation with those parties as well as related shareholder derivative litigation. The outcome of these various proceedings cannot be predicted. Any adverse judgments or settlements involving payment of a material sum of money could cause a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and could expose us to additional claims by third parties, including current or former investors or regulators. Any adverse judgments or settlements would reduce our profits and could limit our ability to operate our business. See Item 1A—"Risk Factors" and Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies."

Other Factors Affecting Liquidity

Wynn Resorts is a holding company and, as a result, our ability to pay dividends is highly dependent on our ability to obtain funds and our subsidiaries' ability to provide funds to us. Wynn Las Vegas, LLC, Wynn America, LLC and Wynn Macau SA debt instruments contain customary negative covenants and financial covenants, including, but not limited to, covenants that restrict their ability to pay dividends or distributions.

Wynn Las Vegas, LLC intends to fund its operations and capital requirements from cash on hand and operating cash flow. We cannot assure you however, that our Las Vegas Operations will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or the availability of additional indebtedness will be sufficient to enable us to service and repay Wynn Las Vegas, LLC's indebtedness and to fund its other liquidity needs. Similarly, we expect that our Macau Operations will fund Wynn Macau SA and WML's debt service obligations with existing cash, operating cash flow and availability under the Wynn Macau Credit Facilities. However, we cannot assure you that operating cash flows will be sufficient to do so. We may refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness on or before maturity. We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance any of the indebtedness on acceptable terms or at all.

Legal proceedings in which we are involved also may impact our liquidity. No assurance can be provided as to the outcome of such proceedings. In addition, litigation inherently involves significant costs. For information regarding legal proceedings, see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies".

Our Board of Directors has authorized an equity repurchase program of up to $1.7 billion. The repurchase program may include repurchases from time to time through open market purchases, in privately negotiated transactions, and under plans complying with Rules 10b5-1 and 10b-18 under the Exchange Act. As of December 31, 2015, we had purchased a cumulative total of 12,804,954 shares of our common stock for a net cost of $1.1 billion under the program, with no purchases made under this program during the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013.

We have in the past repurchased, and in the future, we may periodically consider repurchasing our outstanding notes for cash. The amount of any notes to be repurchased, as well as the timing of any repurchases, will be based on business, market and other conditions and factors, including price, contractual requirements or consents, and capital availability.

New business developments or other unforeseen events may occur, resulting in the need to raise additional funds. We continue to explore opportunities to develop additional gaming or related businesses in domestic and international markets. There can be no assurances regarding the business prospects with respect to any other opportunity. Any new development would require us to obtain additional financing. We may decide to conduct any such development through Wynn Resorts or through subsidiaries separate from the Las Vegas or Macau-related entities.


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Off Balance Sheet Arrangements

We have not entered into any transactions with special purpose entities nor do we engage in any derivatives except for previously discussed interest rate swaps. We do not have any retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity. At December 31, 2015, we had outstanding letters of credit totaling $11.7 million.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

The following table summarizes our scheduled contractual commitments at December 31, 2015 (dollars in millions):
 
Payments Due By Period
 
Less
Than
1 Year
 
1 to 3
Years
 
4 to 5
Years
 
After
5 Years
 
Total
Long-term debt obligations
$

 
$
123.3

 
$
1,193.0

 
$
7,978.6

 
$
9,294.9

Fixed interest payments
277.2

 
554.4

 
554.4

 
658.7

 
2,044.7

Estimated variable interest payments (1)
61.8

 
119.2

 
152.7

 
23.0

 
356.7

Operating leases
16.4

 
32.1

 
25.6

 
64.0

 
138.1

Construction contracts and commitments
274.2

 
52.0

 

 

 
326.2

Leasehold interest in land
16.0

 

 

 

 
16.0

Employment agreements
62.5

 
61.4

 
12.1

 

 
136.0

Other (2)
126.5

 
122.9

 
63.0

 
57.7

 
370.1

Total commitments
$
834.6

 
$
1,065.2

 
$
2,000.8

 
$
8,782.1

 
$
12,682.8


(1)
Amounts for all periods represent our estimated future interest payments on our debt facilities based upon amounts outstanding and LIBOR or HIBOR rates at December 31, 2015. Such rates continue at historical lows as of December 31, 2015. Actual rates will vary.

(2)
Other includes open purchase orders, future charitable contributions, fixed gaming tax payments in Macau and other contracts. As further discussed in Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 16 "Income Taxes" of this report, we had $88.3 million of unrecognized tax benefits as of December 31, 2015. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the underlying tax positions, it is not practicable to assign this liability to any particular year and therefore it is not included in the table above as of December 31, 2015.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Management's discussion and analysis of our results of operations and liquidity and capital resources are based on our consolidated financial statements. Our consolidated financial statements were prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. A summary of our significant accounting policies are presented in Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 2 "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies." Certain of our accounting policies require management to apply significant judgment in defining the appropriate assumptions integral to financial estimates. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates those estimates, including those relating to the estimated lives of depreciable assets, asset impairment, allowances for doubtful accounts, accruals for customer loyalty programs, contingencies, litigation and other items. Judgments are based on historical experience, terms of existing contracts, industry trends and information available from outside sources, as appropriate. However, by their nature, judgments are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty, and therefore actual results could differ from our estimates.

Development, Construction and Property and Equipment Estimates

During the construction and development of a resort, pre-opening or start-up costs are expensed when incurred. In connection with the construction and development of our resorts, significant start-up costs are incurred and charged to pre-opening costs through their respective openings. Once our resorts open, expenses associated with the opening of the resorts are no longer charged as pre-opening costs.

During the construction and development stage, direct costs such as those incurred for the design and construction of our resorts, including applicable portions of interest, are capitalized. Accordingly, the recorded amounts of property and equipment increase significantly during construction periods. Depreciation is provided over the estimated useful lives of the assets using the straight-line method. We determine the estimated useful lives based on our experience with similar assets, estimate of the

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usage of the asset, and other factors specific to the asset. Depreciation expense related to capitalized construction costs is recognized when the related assets are placed in service. Upon the opening of our resorts, we began recognizing depreciation expense on the resort's fixed assets.

We review remaining estimated useful lives of our property and equipment on an ongoing basis. In our review of estimated useful lives of buildings and improvements for Wynn Macau, we consider factors such as liberalization of the gaming industry in Macau, market expansion and actions taken by the Macau government regarding concession renewals. This review indicated that our estimated useful lives of buildings and improvements extend beyond the current expiration of the gaming concession in June 2022 and land concession in August 2029. As a result, effective September 1, 2015, we have changed our estimate of the remaining useful lives of Wynn Macau assets to better reflect the estimated periods during which these assets are expected to remain in service.

Costs of repairs and maintenance are charged to expense when incurred. The cost and accumulated depreciation of property and equipment retired or otherwise disposed of are eliminated from the respective accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in property charges and other.

We also evaluate our property and equipment and other long-lived assets for impairment in accordance with applicable accounting standards. For assets to be disposed of we recognize the asset at the lower of carrying value or fair market value less costs of disposal, as estimated based on comparable asset sales, solicited offers, or a discounted cash flow model. For assets to be held and used, we review for impairment whenever indicators of impairment exist. In reviewing for impairment, we compare the estimated future cash flows of the asset, on an undiscounted basis, to the carrying value of the asset. If the undiscounted cash flows exceed the carrying value, no impairment is indicated. If the undiscounted cash flows do not exceed the carrying value, an impairment is recorded based on the fair value of the asset, typically measured using a discounted cash flow model. If an asset is still under development, future cash flows include remaining construction costs. All recognized impairment losses, whether for assets to be disposed of or assets to be held and used are recorded as operating expenses.

Redemption Price Promissory Note

We record the Redemption Note at its fair value in accordance with applicable accounting guidance. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, the fair value of the Redemption Note was $1.88 billion and $1.94 billion, respectively. We utilized an independent third party valuation to assist in the determination of this fair value. In determining this fair value, we estimated the Redemption Note's present value using discounted cash flows with a probability-weighted expected return for redemption assumptions and a discount rate, which included time value and non-performance risk adjustments commensurate with the risk of the Redemption Note.

Considerations for the redemption assumptions included the stated maturity of the Redemption Note, uncertainty of the related cash flows as well as potential effects of the following: uncertainties surrounding the potential outcome and timing of pending litigation with the Okada Parties (see Item 8—"Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Note 17 "Commitments and Contingencies"); the outcome of on-going investigations of Aruze by the United States Attorney's Office, the U.S. Department of Justice and the Nevada Gaming Control Board; and other potential legal and regulatory actions. In addition, in the furtherance of various future business objectives, we considered our ability, at our sole option, to prepay the Redemption Note at any time in accordance with its terms without penalty. Accordingly, we reasonably determined that the estimated life of the Redemption Note could be less than the contractual life of the Redemption Note.

In determination of the appropriate discount rate to be used in the estimated present value, the Redemption Note's subordinated position and credit risk relative to all other debt in our capital structure and credit ratings associated with our traded debt were considered. Observable inputs for the risk free rate based on Federal Reserve rates for U.S. Treasury securities and credit risk spread based on a yield curve index of similarly rated debt were used. 


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Investments and Fair Value

We have made investments in domestic and foreign corporate debt securities and commercial paper. Our investment policy requires investments to be investment grade and limits the amount of exposure to any one issuer with the objective of minimizing the potential risk of principal loss. We determine the appropriate classification (held-to-maturity/available-for-sale) of our investments at the time of purchase and reevaluate such designation as of each balance sheet date. Our investments are reported at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, reported in other comprehensive income (loss). Adjustments are made for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity computed under the effective interest method. Such amortization is included in interest income together with realized gains and losses and the stated interest on such securities.

We measure certain of our financial assets and liabilities, such as cash equivalents, interest rate swaps, restricted cash, available-for-sale securities and the Redemption Note at fair value on a recurring basis pursuant to accounting standards for fair value measurements. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. These accounting standards establish a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value. These tiers include: Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets; Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable; and Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.

We obtain pricing information in determining the fair value of our available-for-sale securities from independent pricing vendors. Based on our inquiries, the pricing vendors use various pricing models consistent with what other market participants would use. The assumptions and inputs used by the pricing vendors are derived from market observable sources including: reported trades, broker/dealer quotes, issuer spreads, benchmark curves, bids, offers and other market-related data. We have not made adjustments to such prices. Each quarter, we validate the fair value pricing methodology to determine the fair value consistent with applicable accounting guidance and to confirm that the securities are classified properly in the fair value hierarchy. We also compare the pricing received from our vendors to independent sources for the same or similar securities.

Allowance for Estimated Doubtful Accounts Receivable

A substantial portion of our outstanding receivables relates to casino credit play. Credit play, through the issuance of markers, represents a significant portion of the table games volume at our Las Vegas Operations. While offered, the issuance of credit at our Macau Operations is less significant when compared to Las Vegas. Our goal is to maintain strict controls over the issuance of credit and aggressively pursue collection from those customers who fail to pay their balances in a timely fashion. These collection efforts may include the mailing of statements and delinquency notices, personal contacts, the use of outside collection agencies, and litigation. Markers issued at our Las Vegas Operations are generally legally enforceable instruments in the United States, and United States assets of foreign customers may be used to satisfy judgments entered in the United States.

The enforceability of markers and other forms of credit related to gaming debt outside of the United States varies from country to country. Some foreign countries do not recognize the enforceability of gaming related debt, or make enforcement burdensome. We closely consider the likelihood and difficulty of enforceability, among other factors, when issuing credit to customers who are not residents of the United States. In addition to our internal credit and collection departments, located in both Las Vegas and Macau, we have a network of legal, accounting and collection professionals to assist us in our determinations regarding enforceability and our overall collection efforts.

As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, 85.1% and 84.6% of our casino accounts receivable were owed by customers from foreign countries, primarily in Asia. In addition to enforceability issues, the collectability of markers given by foreign customers is affected by a number of factors including changes in currency exchange rates and economic conditions in the customers' home countries.

We regularly evaluate our reserve for bad debts based on a specific review of customer accounts and outstanding gaming promoter accounts as well as management's prior experience with collection trends in the casino industry and current economic and business conditions. In determining our allowance for estimated doubtful accounts receivable, we apply loss factors based on historical marker collection history to aged account balances and we specifically analyze the collectability of each account with a balance over a specified dollar amount, based upon the age, the customer's financial condition, collection history and any other known information.


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The following table presents key statistics related to our casino accounts receivable (dollars in thousands):
 
December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
Casino accounts receivable
$
190,294

 
$
257,930

Allowance for doubtful casino accounts receivable
$
66,109

 
$
74,149

Allowance as a percentage of casino accounts receivable
34.7
%
 
28.7
%
Percentage of casino accounts receivable outstanding over 180 days
43.7
%
 
32.5
%

Our reserve for doubtful casino accounts receivable is based on our estimates of amounts collectible and depends on the risk assessments and judgments by management regarding realizability, the state of the economy and our credit policy. Our reserve methodology is applied similarly to credit extended at each of our resorts. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, 38.7% and 28.2%, respectively, of our outstanding casino account receivable balance originated at our Macau Operations.
 
At December 31, 2015, a 100 basis point change in the allowance for doubtful accounts as a percentage of casino accounts receivable would change the provision for doubtful accounts by approximately $1.9 million.

As our customer payment experience evolves, we will continue to refine our estimated reserve for bad debts. Accordingly, the associated provision for doubtful accounts expense may fluctuate. Because individual customer account balances can be significant, the reserve and the provision can change significantly between periods, as we become aware of additional information about a customer or changes occur in a region's economy or legal system.

Derivative Financial Instruments

We seek to manage our market risk, including interest rate risk associated with variable rate borrowings, through balancing fixed-rate and variable-rate borrowings and the use of derivative financial instruments. We account for derivative financial instruments in accordance with applicable accounting standards. Derivative financial instruments are recognized as assets or liabilities, with changes in fair value affecting net income. As of December 31, 2015, changes in our interest rate swap fair values are being recorded in our Consolidated Statements of Income, as the swaps do not qualify for hedge accounting.

We measure the fair value of our interest rate swaps on a recurring basis. We categorize our interest rate swap contracts as Level 2 in the hierarchy as described above. The fair value approximates the amount we would receive (pay) if these contracts were settled at the respective valuation dates. Fair value is estimated based upon current, and predictions of future, interest rate levels along a yield curve, the remaining duration of the instruments and other market conditions, and therefore is subject to significant estimation and a high degree of variability of fluctuation between periods. We adjust this amount by applying a non-performance valuation, considering our creditworthiness or the creditworthiness of our counterparties at each settlement date, as applicable.

Stock-Based Compensation

Accounting standards for stock-based payments establish standards for the accounting for transactions in which an entity exchanges its equity instruments for goods and services or incurs a liability in exchange for goods and services that are based on the fair value of the entity's equity instruments or that may be settled by the issuance of those equity instruments. It requires an entity to measure the costs of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award and recognize that cost over the service period. We use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine grant-date fair value of our stock options. The Black-Scholes model uses assumptions of expected volatility, risk-free interest rates, the expected term of options granted, and expected rates of dividends. Management determines these assumptions by reviewing current market rates, making industry comparisons and reviewing conditions relevant to our Company.

The expected volatility and expected term assumptions can significantly impact the fair value of stock options. We believe that the valuation techniques and the approach utilized to develop our assumptions are reasonable in calculating the fair value of the options we grant. We estimate the expected stock price volatility using a combination of implied and historical factors related to our stock price in accordance with applicable accounting standards. As our stock price fluctuates, this estimate will change. A hypothetical 10% change in the volatility assumption for our options granted in 2015 would not have a material effect on the change in fair value. Expected term represents the estimated average time between the option's grant date and its exercise date. A hypothetical 10% change in the expected term assumption for our options granted in 2015 would not have a

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material effect on the change in fair value. These assumed changes in fair value would have been recognized over the vesting schedule of such awards.

Accounting standards also require the classification of stock compensation expense in the same financial statement line items as cash compensation, and therefore impacts our departmental expenses (and related operating margins), pre-opening costs and construction in progress for our development projects, and our general and administrative expenses (including corporate expenses).

Income Taxes

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and other foreign jurisdictions where we operate. Accounting standards require the recognition of deferred tax assets, net of applicable reserves, and liabilities for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovere